Principles of care for surgical patients

The results of surgical intervention depends largely on the proper preparation of the patient for the operation (see the Preoperative period) and care in the postoperative period (see). Ward nurse monitors the timely and correct implementation is assigned to the patient before operation of some diagnostic and other procedures, as violation of the rules and order of the studies can lead to an incorrect evaluation of the patient and to have serious consequences in the postoperative period. The strict observance of aseptic (see) and antiseptics (see) is a mandatory rule of personnel work surgical departments. Sterilization linen, dressing material, suture material (see Sterilization surgery), preparation of hands for the operation are of particular importance in the prevention of surgical infection. Preparation of the patient for operation requires a special tact, taking into account the vulnerability of the patient's mind, the fear of the forthcoming operation. The moral condition of the patient has a role in the outcome of the operation.
During surgery nurse (paramedic) often helps anesthesiologists, watching breathing and circulation of the patient, provides emergency assistance in case of threat of complications that requires certain knowledge on maintenance of anesthesia (see).
Great care is required when transferring the patient to the operating table at the gate, with her on the bed; more likely the patient is put on the back, sometimes half-sitting with stand at the head, or raised the head end of the bed for this purpose a special bed that allows you to easily change the position of the limbs, torso and head.
In the first hours after surgery nurse monitors the condition of the patient, to prevent possible retraction language, disruption of the heart's work, systematically measure blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, writes the information to a special card. When applied during the operation miorelaksantov (see) due to the return of their influence paralysis of muscles: at the first signs of this dangerous complications (severe weakness, sagging skin, shallow breathing, and so on), you must call the doctor and begin artificial respiration, preferably with the help of a special apparatus, give oxygen; oxygen is necessary to humidify, having passed through a jar of water. Intravenous administration prozerina (0.5 to 1 mg) and atropine (0.5 mg). Frequent complication is vomiting. For the prevention of vomit in the trachea should quickly turn your head on one side of the patient and wipe your mouth with topferm. If possible, you should use a suction apparatus, suction catheter device must be lubricated dikanova ointment, and after his introduction attach the patch to the skin of the face. Swelling of the larynx is of special importance to the timely evacuation of saliva and mucus, oxygen therapy (see). At introduction in the postoperative period drip intravenous fluids and blood nurse is obliged to closely monitor the health of the drip system, the fluid level, frequency drops, etc. Care after tracheotomy - see below Care of otorhinolaryngological sick.
In addition to the General observation of postoperative patients in order to prevent collapse (see), bleeding (see), pulmonary edema, need special attention to the state of bandages, drainage (see Drainage), prevention of wound infection. The duties of nurses includes execution of instructions for feeding sick and monitoring of timely urination and bowel movements.