Heart surgery

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Surgical treatment of wounds of the heart and its various diseases - a remarkable achievement of modern medicine. For many centuries heart remained impregnable fortress for surgeons. It was widely believed that the injury to the heart always deadly to humans. Therefore, even the most daring surgeons did not dare to operate on the heart and believed that heart surgery is a pipe dream.
One of the largest surgeons XIX century Billroth, expressing the General opinion of his colleagues, said that the dissection of the heart shirts and heart operations are "limit desecration surgery". This idea has been repeated many times in speeches and reports of many scientists of that time. Actually, it reflected the state of medical science.
In the end of XIX century the doctors had not yet enough experience in surgery of the thoracic cavity, did not know of active ways of struggle against infection, is not able to prevent serious consequences of the shock and blood loss. Naturally, therefore, that even after operations on the extremities often encountered severe complications - gas gangrene, secondary bleeding, peritonitis, which was carried to the grave of many hundreds of lives. At that time in the development of surgery was another big obstacle is the lack of reliable and safe method of anesthesia.
Great discoveries Pasteur and Lister, proceedings of the Russian genius N. I. Pirogov and the Hungarian scientific Semmelweis created prerequisites for production operations in the conditions of reimbursement, which greatly warned the risk of postoperative complications (asepsis - system of measures that prevent the penetration of the infection in the body for surgical operations).
Of great significance in the development of surgery was opening Morton ether anesthesia, a deep study and implementation in practice, carried out in Russia N. I. Pirogov. Then in surgery was introduced local anesthesia. This merit belongs to Llahu and especially the Soviet surgeon Century A. Vishnevskaya, who offered his great way infiltration procaine anesthesia.
A great role in the progress of surgery has played a blood transfusion. Common efforts of scientists around the world and, in particular, Soviet doctors of various specialities - professors A. A. Bogomolets, S. I. of Spasokukotskogo, A. A. Bagdasarova, A. N. Filatov and others laid the Foundation for extensive use of methods of blood transfusion in surgical practice. In this connection, shock and blood loss has ceased to be the Bane of hospitals, and even the heaviest patients could tolerate long and complicated operations on the internal organs.
Finally, in recent years in the Arsenal of tools to fight against infection there is a new powerful weapon - antibiotics. With penicillin, streptomycin, biomitsin and other antibiotics was possible to successfully treat such deadly complications such as sepsis, peritonitis, purulent inflammation of the heart shirts, etc. in Addition, antibiotics prevents infection with long-term operations in severe patients.
All these factors have a serious prerequisite for the progress of modern surgery. They led to the conquest of one of the areas previously inaccessible to surgery,operations on the heart, the pericardium (heart shirt) and large vessels.
The first timid attempts in this area belong to the scientists-experience-rimentation. At the end of the last century the Russian doctors N. Filippov and I. Sabaneev in the experiment on dogs successfully fulfilled the seam of the heart muscle. Similar work was carried out abroad, Delvecchio, Block, Ren.
These bold experiments of the last century refuted the idea of the inevitability of death when the wounds of the heart and showed the possibility of survival of warm-blooded animals after being wounded hearts and suturing of the heart wound.
The first successful operation closing knife incised wounds of the right ventricle of the heart in man was executed Ren in 1896.