With the development of the consciousness of the people perceived the surrounding world and, of course, himself. On ways of understanding the world and essence of a live encountered a lot of exciting events, disappointments and victims. In any branch of science was not so dramatic as in medicine, where at the dawn of civilization mysticism and religion, deftly used by those in power, has hampered attempts by people to know the structure of a person. Therefore, the history of anatomy, the main ways of its formation outlines do not like drama or the success of the individual scientist, but as a set of material and spiritual living conditions of the society as the development of new ideas on the basis of objective laws of nature that were open K. Marx: "We know only one science, the science of history. History can be viewed from two sides, it can be divided into the history of nature and history of the people. Both of these aspects are inextricably linked; as long as there are people, the history, nature and history of the people cause each other".
Is the firm position of Marx often disputed by representatives of the bourgeois immanent school of historians who believe that the development of any science is determined solely immanent, i.e. internal regularities inherent to the " scientific cognition. In fact, the story must be based on Dialektika-materialistic methodology, which takes into account socio-political and cultural-historical conditions of the era. On the development paths of history there were many revolutionary and evolutionary periods, theories and hypotheses, which are not destroyed by time, and organically continue transformed when more correctly can be linked in a single historical pattern. This section summarizes only the tipping point, indigenous moments in the history of anatomy, which is part of the development of the doctrine about the structure and function of living things.
- Information about nature in primitive society
- Anatomy in Ancient Greece
- The development of anatomy in the period of Hellenism in Ancient Rome
- Anatomy in the middle ages
- The epoch of Revival and revolutionary changes in the ideology and biology
- The discovery of blood circulation
- Microscopic anatomy and cell theory
- Embryology of animals and humans
- Comparative anatomy
- Evolutionary doctrine
- Anatomy in the period of decline of feudalism
- The development of anatomy in the USSR
- The struggle of anatomy and theology