The history of urology

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Urology is called the science of physiology and pathology of the urinary tract and reproductive system of the man. Etiology, clinical picture, prevention and treatment of these diseases, injuries and malformations are the subject of urology as clinical disciplines and medical specialty.
Hippocrates for 400 years B.C. mentioned operations campsite removal of bladder stones, on the diagnostic value of the color, smell and precipitation urine.
Erazistrat for 300 years BC described solid curved catheter. This tool before been used in Egypt. Bronze bugi to extend the urethra discovered during excavations of Pompeii, destroyed in 79 year, i.e. almost 1900 years ago.
Galen (II century) wrote about the deposition of salts as the reason of formation of kidney stones. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (X-XI century) constructed piston syringe for irrigation of the bladder.
In the middle ages kamnereznye was not the doctors, and "kanesaki" craftsmen or monks, specially engaged in this operation.
Urethra was cut off in the crotch area on the middle line, or from the side. Working through the incision, the urethra into the bladder is injected with a syringe, which removed the stone. The operation was carried out in unsanitary conditions and was accompanied by a high (50%) fatality.
Widespread in the middle ages uroscopy - diagnostics of diseases by color, smell and even taste of urine. Doctors "uroscopy or horometry" was very popular. Uroscopy mainly been a combination of ignorance and charlatanism.
In Russia, like in other countries, kamnereznye was made long "stray operators stone disease that... enjoyed quite limited right of practice" (M. Yakovlev). Special glory used in the XVIII century kanesaki Nikolayev and I. P. Venediktov. The last was a virtuoso in this area: mortality in kamnereznye reached only 4%.
Huge advances in the study of anatomy and physiology, and great discoveries in physics, chemistry and bacteriology, industrial development, particularly instrumental techniques, marked the second half of the XVIII century, and especially of the XIX century. On their basis medicine step by step lost its roughly empirical and gradually freed himself from scholasticism, unreasonable, often fantastic, views and theories. A new burst, scientific medicine.
In the XVIII and XIX centuries in the development of urology special role played the opening of the pathogenic role of microorganisms L. Pasteur, and I. I. Mechnikov, antiseptic and asepsis, General and local anesthesia and improvement of operational equipment. In the XIX century have been identified integral part of urine - protein, urea, uric acid. All this has allowed the famous French urologist Guyana to develop and describe, in 1881, the clinic diseases of the genitourinary system, studying only the history, common clinical methods of examination of the patient, chemical and bacteriological analysis of urine. Mercier (France), Thompson (England) and Dittel (Austria) also made a significant contribution to the development of symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the urinary bladder, urinary tract and male reproductive organs.
In Russia urology as a scientific medical profession also originated in the second half of the XVIII century. Approximately 100 years, it gradually turned into a truly scientific discipline.
In 1771, was released the first Russian monograph on urological theme - thesis of X. Zubera "On illnesses of a bladder".
Especially succeeded in many Russian surgeons in the treatment userdocument disease. With the opening of the medical faculty of Moscow University (1765) to treat urolithiasis were doctors. Professor of Moscow University, F. A. Hildebrand made to 3000 operations campsite without anesthesia, in most cases successfully. Select at the time was perineal side section. This operation "donnaconna" period masterfully produced by A. I. Paul, F. I. Inozemtsev, V. A. Basov, F. I. Sinitsyn in Moscow, F. O. Jelacic in Kazan, V. A. Karavaev in Kiev, I. I. Vdovichenko in Odessa.
In the early XIX century (1820) in Russia have made the operation kamnedrobilniy, a pioneer of which was senior physician and surgeon Catherine hospital in Moscow A. I. Paul.
Remove bladder stones by suprapubic high-sectional it (sectio alta) has been applied in Russia for more than 130 years ago. The development and implementation of this activity, paid much attention K. I. Grum-Grzhimailo, N. I. Pirogov, E. P. Assertvalid and N. Century Sklifosovsky.
In 1806 the Russian doctor Ya Century Villje gave the first scientific description of clinic and treatment of narrowing of the urethra. In Odessa I. I. Vdovichenko in the 70-ies of the last century made 1000 operations internal dissection of the urethra in the strictures.
In 1863 in Odessa was opened the first in Russia the hospital's urology Department under the guidance of I. I. Vdovichenkov, and in 1866 the first Russian urological clinic of Moscow University, which he headed since 1877, during the 30 years of F. I. Sinitsyn. He was an outstanding specialist in the treatment of urethral strictures by bagirovym.
Professor F. I. Sinitsyn (1884) idea about the use of castration for the treatment of prostate tumors, based on endocrine relationship between the prostate gland and testicles. In 1943 the brilliant idea of F. I. Sinitsina used American Huggins. This idea formed the basis of modern hormonal therapy for prostate cancer.