A brief history of the use of mineral therapeutic waters

Many wonderful legends and tales created the peoples living and dead water, on water, one glass which returns youth and strength, beauty and health. On all continents of the world, where there are mineral springs, there are these wonderful stories about the healing power sources. For centuries there drinking resorts in Europe and enjoy well-deserved fame. An example would be existing for 600 years the resort Karlovy vary.
In Russia the mineral water treatment, physicians begins in the epoch of Peter I. having Visited health resorts abroad, carlsbad and others, ensuring a large values of its medicinal waters, Peter I ordered to look for such water within the Russian state. And such water in Russia were soon discovered. In 1714 the king was told that the working Konchezerskoye domain plant Ivan Ranks, who had suffered a "heart pain", drunk 3 days the water source found on the banks of Gabozero, completely healed. Peter I ordered to Dr. Ravelin personally examine the source and describe it. Up to now remained a "genuine inquiry about the action Marcial Konchezersky waters", made by Ravelin in 1718 In inquiry stated that patients with various diseases drank water for several days and was healed. In the same year, Peter I personally visited the source and tried him a great effect on me, then ordered to build the first Russian resort.
In 1717 Peter I sent a special expedition in other areas of the country, including the Caucasus, visited life-physician of the king of the Schober. By the expedition in the Schober gave the first reliable information about the sources Pyatigorje. At the same time were opened Braginskii mineral water, called on Kavkaze Peter's greenhouses. Under the decree of Peter I were designed "doctorskie rules of use of the healing waters. In the Decree on the treatment on the Marcial waters said: "For the Lord God, in his mercy to us, the healing water show was pleased... that for the sake commanded we... rules doktorskie to write like them water to drink and what is the order in life and in eating and drinking to contain, in order ignorance instead of the good pace of spending his health who is not brought...".
Thus was laid the beginning of the science of mineral waters and practice them. Since then, it took 250 years, and treatment of drinking mineral waters in the country increased slim scientifically grounded system.
The main role in the development of drinking played resorts of Caucasian Mineral Waters, officially opened in 1803
The first 60 years of XIX century drinking treatment was carried out without sufficient scientific justification. According to his contemporary F. P. Haas, A. A. Sukharev, A. Zee, P. Savenkova, , Konevets and others, drinking treatment in the resorts of the Caucasus in those years were conducted based on the principle: the more water is consumed, the better the outcome. It was considered necessary to drink water from different sources. Patients lived on the water for 3-4 months. For atoureta they were treated in Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, moved from resort to resort, and on each of them drank the water. The sources were built special gallery for walks and even dancing. Sources regularly played by the military orchestra. Drinking water started with 2 - 3 glasses with an interval of 10-15 minutes between each batch. By the end of treatment some patients only in the morning drinking 8-10 glasses of water, and when the "emergency" method of treatment - and even more. The weakened patients drank water at home, often lying in bed. Drank water all, even small children. Many patients were treated themselves, without the help of a doctor.
In 1824, had A. P. Nelyubina, where he stated that "the choice of the water, its use and the number must be prescribed by a doctor... better to drink water at the source, but in some cases you can drink and at home". Next, he forbade drinking large amounts of water and recommended to drink no more than b cups a day. More detailed indications for treatment and recommendations made in 1828. , Professor of the medical surgical Academy P. Savenkov in his work "Caucasian Mineral Waters". In this work it is recommended to treat mineral water all the diseases depending on the failure of the forces and the actions of organs of digestion, a relaxation of the stomach and intestines, bladder and at gemorroidalnyh disorders. More than 30 years the indications and recommendations to drink mineral water, developed P. Savenkov, were the mainstay of treatment in resorts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters.
Significant development and a scientific justification received drinking treatment in the second half of the XIX century. Organized in Pyatigorsk in 1863 Russian balneological society under the leadership of S. A. Smirnov has set a goal to raise Russian resorts to the level of the best foreign ones. At the same time, the doctors working in the resorts, every year he went to foreign travel. All this has greatly enriched the resort practice and allowed to organize independent research.
In 1861 appeared detailed work F. A. batalina "Pyatigorsk region Caucasian Mineral Waters", in 1873 - the dissertation P. Pogozheva "Kislovodsk and its source Narzan", later - the work of M. K. Milyutin, A. A. Lozinsky, etc. In all of these works has received much attention and drinking cure. Gradually refined testimony was developed methods for internal use of mineral waters, as well as co-resort treatment of various diseases, but it was still a lot of unresolved issues, particularly on the mechanism of action of mineral water.
Curative effects of mineral waters recognized leading clinicians last century - S. P. Botkin, G. A. zaharyin and other Guided by the idea of a common therapeutic influence on the organism, G. A. zaharyin attached great importance resort therapy. Assessing domestic resorts in their natural wealth above abroad, he contributed to the promotion and development of Spa treatment in Russia.
In 1863, the Russian balneological society organized physical-chemical laboratory for the study of mineral waters, and in 1873 he published a monograph S. A. Smirnov, "Essentukskoe alkaline water", which were described in detail chemical properties of mineral springs, physiological and therapeutic effect of them on the basis of long-term observations of the author were recommended rules of treatment.
Studying mineral waters of Zheleznovodsk, M. K. Milyutin (1874) wrote that treatment at this resort are shown in diseases, "causing exhaustion, and diseases of the digestive system. Of great interest are the clinical work A. Zaionchkovskaya (1878), who studied the influence of water Essentuki № 17 on the acidity of gastric contents and digestive force juice a person under the influence of a single admission and course of application of mineral water.
O. A. chalecki (1893) describes the physiological and therapeutic effect of mineral water in their internal use and leads indications for referral of patients to the Caucasian resorts.
The work of P. Kamenskogo (1873 and 1875), bearing clinical-experimental, emphasize the positive impact of the Essentuki mineral water in inflammatory diseases of liver and biliary tract.
Student I. P. Pavlova N. M. Becker (1896) investigated the influence of Essentuki mineral water source № 17 on exocrine function of the pancreas.
S. P. Botkin repeatedly suggested to organize experimental study of the effect of mineral water, saying that "the only experimental balneology to ensure the success of the Russian balneological thoughts". However, to realize this idea was not possible for many years. The difficulties of the research work were due primarily to the lack of proper methodological approaches to the experimental study of the effect of mineral water in their drinking use.

Systematic and purposeful study of the therapeutic value of mineral waters began after the classical experiments of I. P. Pavlov and his staff in the field of physiology of digestion, held on politically animals, were the basic regularities in the functional activity of the gastrointestinal tract and are open physiological mechanisms regulating these processes. The first scientific research on these issues was produced in Pavlovian laboratories when studying the effect of some chemicals of mineral water: sodium chloride, soda, and other components - on gastric secretion dogs with Pavlovskii and guidelineshome isolated ventricular (PP Huts, 1894; A. P. Sokolov, 1904, and other staff I. P. Pavlova).
The discovery of these laws and the possibility of using fistulina animals in chronic experiments were given the opportunity to approach the study of mechanism of action of mineral water in their water use and to address many of the questions.
Studying the role of carbon dioxide, p. P. Pimenov was introduced into the stomach of the dog carbonated water. A. N. Volkovich (1898) studied the effect of carbonated and non-carbonated milk on gastric secretion dogs. Obtained in the laboratories of I. P. Pavlov experimental data on the therapeutic effects of the solutions of caustic soda (I. K. Cathedrals, 1899; Y. X. Zavriev, 1900; N. P. Kazan, 1901, and others) allowed I. P. Pavlov to Express the position of the double action soda solutions on the secretion of stomach - positive pyloric and brake duodenal. These data were very important for the analysis of effects that occur when the internal use of mineral waters.
Despite the significant development of the experimental balneology resorts, development of issues related to drinking treatment were sporadic and were carried out by individual researchers (the Gulf of Finland Borodenko, 1907 and 1910; A. S. Asadov, 1911, and others).
A new era in the life of the resorts offer after published Century I. Lenin's decree "On the therapeutic areas of national significance". This was the beginning of systematic and purposeful scientific studies Spa treatment. Created research resort institutions. The first was Balneological Institute on the Caucasian Mineral Waters, organized in 1920, Later institutions with the same profile were established in Moscow, Tbilisi, Odessa and other cities.
In 1921, in the Balneological Institute on the Caucasian Mineral Waters was organized by the Department of experimental balneology. In his work (at that time it was headed by C. D. Zepalov) found their rationale Pavlovian studying principles of resort factors. In the Department of experimental balneology actively participated students of I. P. Pavlov, D. C. Mr. foursikov, and since 1925, K. M. Bykov with its employees. The main direction of work was experimental substantiation of efficiency of drinking water treatment. In broad terms we studied the main function of the digestive system, metabolism, was given a comparative evaluation of mineral waters.
Conducted experimental work and in Zheleznovodsk (F. P. Lopachuk), in Essentuki (A. S. Vishnevsky). They served as the basis for compilation methodology drinking treatment of mineral waters on all resorts of the Caucasian group.
In the postwar years in Zheleznovodsk branch experimental Department Century, Prokopenko with the participation of I. I. of Kurtina and A. C. Soloviev found that mineral waters have a different effect on certain areas of the stomach and made conclusions about the reflex influence of the mineral waters.
Unlike works devoted mainly local study of the physiological action of mineral waters, in the postwar years in all institutes of balneology and physiotherapy are studying the effect of mineral water on a different system, taking into account the reactions of the entire organism. Research is conducted in broad terms: considers not only the function of the digestive system, but other side of the metabolism of identifying the roles of the various ingredients of mineral waters in the target function.
Many researchers have been extensively studied reflex influence of mineral waters. Proven effect of mineral water on various parts of the nervous system - from the receptor devices peripheral organs to the Central nervous system. A special place is given to the issues of participation of the cerebral cortex. The role of the initial functional state of different organs and systems and the whole organism.
In the future more and more attention of researchers begin to raise questions neurohumoral mechanisms in action of mineral waters, the participation of the latter in the course of metabolic processes. Widely investigated the role of the individual ingredients of mineral water: radon, organic substances, macro - and micro-components.
In 1955-1959, medical press was held a fruitful discussion on the mechanism of action of resort factors and, in particular, drinking mineral waters. The discussion gave opportunity to set a number of provisions: 1) the effect of mineral water on the body has a reflective nature on the humoral response; 2) resort factors (mineral water) are complex stimuli, with nonspecific and specific properties; 3) resort factors on the organism is in essence trophic; 4) the effect of mineral water plays the role of the initial functional state of the organism, it determines and phase nature of this action.
In recent years, many questions of the mechanism of action of mineral waters were solved in the experiment on different pathological models, bringing the researcher to the clinic or medical condition, to the pathogenesis of a pathological process. As pathological models are widely used animals with experimental gastritis, colitis, experimental hepatitis and gastric ulcer, dogs with diabetes. Great attention was paid to the influence of the mineral waters in animals with experimental neuroses.
In recent years, much attention is paid to the changes of water-salt and other types of exchange, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (A. N. Bakuradze, M. N. Pronina and others). Study of the mechanism of action of mineral waters is currently using the latest physiological and biochemical methods of research.
Thorough study has been reticular substance, enzyme systems, microelements. More widely than before, examined the role of humoral factors and, in particular, the endocrine system in the implementation of responses to the action of mineral waters. In the literature there is evidence of structural changes of the organs of the internal use of mineral waters.
The results of the experiments have allowed to clarify the existing and develop new methods of appointment of mineral water, and also to get rather a complete idea about the mechanism of their action on the various functions and systems of the organism of animals and humans.
On the basis of experimental works were developed and a large clinical material on all drinking resorts.
To expand our knowledge about the internal use of mineral water with curative intent were especially fruitful clinical and experimental research, which was conducted in drinking large resorts. Fundamental work by A. S. Vladimir in Zheleznovodsk allowed in the 20-30-ies to develop differentiated methods internal use of mineral waters.
In subsequent years resorts carefully worked out the main principles and methods of treatment of diseases of liver and gall-bladder diseases of the colon and small intestine. Much attention is paid to combined methods of treatment of various stages of peptic ulcer disease and metabolic disorders (diabetes and obesity).