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The development of psychiatric care and teaching of psychiatry. Brief historical sketch

The first attempts to explain mental diseases usually associated with the name of Hippocrates. His explanation was wearing naive materialistic character. Famous Greek physician believed that all diseases in humans derive from the violation of balance between the four main body fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile. In the writings of Hippocrates you can find the first mention of hereditary transmission of mental diseases.
Attempts to define the norm and pathology of mental activity of a person we meet and philosophers.
So, Plato argued that all mental functions are in the head. Aristotle in his "book Of memory and memories" described the cases of people imaginary images "was adopted for the reality", cases of morbid fears "pathological cannibalism".
The next century did not bring anything new to the study of mental illness, and only three hundred years of Roman AVL Cornelius Celsus gave a brief but systematic development of the doctrine of mental illnesses. Celsus was neither a doctor nor a philosopher, and a well-known fact that he wrote for his time the most complete encyclopedia on all issues. In the section about medicine Celsius leads the classification of mental disorders; madness is divided into three types: Frenet is acutely appearing fever with mental activity from a mild excitement to a large irritability; melancholy - not so acutely developing state and longer than the first, which is expressed in sorrow and arising from spills of black bile; the condition in which man can deceive perception and thought. As treatment Celsius offered material resources, hunger, linking patients with disobedience - beating, the content on the circuit. With the fall of the Roman Empire and development of feudalism science and philosophy were in a state of stagnation and even regression. The influence of superstition and religion reached in science extraordinary scope. Not escaped this fate and psychiatry. If the early middle ages is also characterized by the relative development of psychiatry (organized special shelters for the exclusion of the mentally ill), since the end of the XIV to the beginning of the XVII century was the darkest period of the dominance of religion with the Inquisition and the burning of the mentally ill at the stake as Besodeiah.
With the beginning of the epoch of the great geographical discoveries of the authority of the Church has fallen sharply. The intention was to scientific knowledge. Mental health care was originally made only in isolation of the mentally ill from society. In the XVIII century were organized state pensions for the mentally ill. Compared with nursing homes for the wealthy that existed in monasteries, resorts, hospitals, you can not call it were more places with strict isolation, and in the worst case almost prison regime. No treatment, patients were not given, were held on scarce food, cold, dirt, and it was subjected to systematic beatings by guards. Despite the development of psychiatry as a science, practical assistance insane not actually was. And although the number of doctors and scientists gave an angry condemnation orders that prevailed in boarding houses for the mentally ill, the situation remained unchanged until the period of the great French revolution. At the direction of the new government of France in 1791 was formed hospital Commission, which has been examining the situation of the mentally ill. In 1792 on the recommendation of the Commission, the chief physician at the hospital bicêtre (the largest psychiatric hospital for men in France at that time) was appointed Philippe Pinel. In bicêtre Pinel sought to insane were treated as patients of the medical institution, and not prisoners. On his orders were lifted chain with patients first bicêtre, and then Salpetriere (female psychiatric hospital). The Pinel was developed a technique of detention of the mentally ill, their treatment. All of these techniques, as well as theoretical questions of medicine were lit by Pinel in his famous work "the Treatise on mental diseases."
In England significant changes in the situation of the mentally ill has come only in 40-50-ies of the XIX century. The initiator of the mitigation provisions of patients was John Conolly, and in some respects he went even further than Pinel. Pinel abolished chain, but left a straitjacket. Conolly abolished and straitjacket, proclaiming the principle of "no holds barred".