The history of development of domestic resorts

The beginning of the development of resorts in Russia belongs to the XVIII century, when by order of Peter I for treatment were opened Marcial, or konchezersky (near Petrozavodsk), and Lipetsk water. With the accession to Russia, Caucasus, Crimea and Central Asia, rich in therapeutic areas, balneology began to develop intensively. Simultaneously developed and domestic literature on balneology. At the end of the XVIII century, there is the description of the Russian resorts. In the XIX century literature, devoted to the description of resorts and their use in various diseases have increased significantly.
The authors of the works on the study of Caucasian mineral waters were doctors TDI (1817), konradi (1824), Nelyubin (1825) and Savenko (1827). Development of the Russian clinical balneotherapy promoted a lot of work largest clinicians: S. P. Botkin, A. A. Ostroumov, etc. and especially, A. Zakharyin - founder of domestic balneology. However, resorts in Russia was slow to develop. The tsarist government showed almost complete indifference to the domestic health resorts and create conditions for its development.
Blagoustroistvo resorts and associated discomfort for patients led to the fact that the Russian bourgeoisie preferred to be treated on foreign resorts, labour population had no material possibilities to ride to the resorts.
For many years the resort factors used empirically, there was a scientific approach to the study as indications and contraindications for treatment at health resorts. The doctors working in the resorts, sought to present their resorts as a panacea for all diseases, and worked away from the resorts or trustingly had sent for treatment even hopeless patients, or was skeptical treatment at the resorts.
Scientific balneology, begun in Russia in the late XIX century. Its development was facilitated the work of the Russian balneological society on the Caucasian Mineral Waters, Odessa balneological society and balneologists A. A. Lozinsky, and C. S. Sadikov in Kemeri and other Great merits in the development of Soviet balneology has a Century A. Alexandrov.
Scientific balneology and setting of the resort as a whole in pre-revolutionary Russia cannot compete with a huge scale resort construction and achievements in this area after the great October socialist revolution, which is explained by exceptional attention to the resorts shown by the Communist party and the Soviet government.
In our country the extensive network of resorts, sanatoria and holiday houses. The beginning of a planned socialist construction resorts laid signed Century I. Lenin on March 20, 1919, the historical decree on the transfer of all health resort business in the management of the national health Committee. Resort resources of our country are large and varied. Before the great October socialist revolution in Russia was not a scientific institution, specially engaged in the issues of balneology, now in our country there are a number of institutes of balneology.
Questions experimental balneology is the most important section of balneology - engaged and I. P. Pavlov. In 1923-1924 he specially sent on the Caucasian mineral waters (Pyatigorsk) his disciples for the organization of the experimental laboratory and research of the therapeutic action of mineral waters on the body. Created at the time an experimental laboratory, which was later reorganized into the experimental Department of the name of I. P. Pavlov Pyatigorsk balneological Institute, for many years worked, guided by the basic principles and ideas of I. P. Pavlov whose focus to the work of this laboratory continued unabated until the end of his life.
The results of this laboratory experimental study of the effect of mineral water on the function of the digestive system was the basis for scientific and effective therapeutic use them for some diseases. To justify the action of mineral water on the body, much has been done K. M. Bykov and his staff (work Pyatigorsk, and Zheleznovodsk clinics Balneological Institute).
Treatment of patients on resorts usually spend in sanatoriums. In the Soviet Union there and resort located outside the resorts. From 2200 currently available sanatoriums more than half is outside the resorts *.
The Soviet government set a task to the full development of sanatorium-resort assistance within the Republic, region or group of regions (North, Central regions of European part of Russia, Urals, Siberia, the far East and the Central Asian republics). Sanatorium resort is stationary treatment-and-prophylactic establishment in which a complex treatment.
According to the purpose and nature of clinical work sanatorium resorts are divided into General therapy, specialized non-TB, TB patients and children.
Specialized sanatoriums are divided into cardiological sanatorium for patients with diseases of the digestive system and metabolism, the organs of movement and supports the nervous system, rheumatism, consequences of poliomyelitis, with diseases of female genital organs, and so on
Sanatorium for tuberculosis patients are divided into a sanatorium for the treatment of: a) patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis; b) patients with tuberculosis of the bones; C) patients with tuberculosis of the kidneys and urinary tract; d) convalescents after meningitis.
For children's sanatorium has the following specialization: 1) for the sick with active forms of tuberculosis; 2) for patients with evanescent forms of pulmonary tuberculosis; 3) for patients with bone tuberculosis; 4) for children-convalescents after meningitis; 5) for patients with rheumatism; 6) for patients with rickets; 7) psychoneurological sanatorium; 8) for patients who have had polio; 9) General therapeutic.
For ambulatory patients on resorts organized resort polyclinics and resorts.
Much attention is paid to the selection of patients for treatment on the resorts. The selection of produce attending physicians in the long process of observation and after diagnosis. For the correct selection doctor should know the basics of Spa care and indications and contraindications for referral of patients to resorts. For each patient the doctor fills out the inquiry on needs in resort treatment, and after getting sick of the tour - the sanatorium-resort card, which enter the data of clinical, laboratory, x-ray and patient investigation.
Treatments at the Spa are indicated in patients in whom it is possible to assume the emergence of resistant rehabilitation. Indications differentiate seasonal resort treatment.
Local medical institutions should monitor patients and on his return from the resort and explore the remote results of the treatment.

C. A. Alexandrov (1877-1956)
A. A. Lozinsky (1865-1961).

* Maps of resorts and therapeutic areas of the USSR see annexes 3, 4, 5.