The history of Pediatrics

Care for children, especially newborns, treatment of children's diseases and their possible prevention is one of the most ancient kinds of medical activities. Pediatrics historically developed as a section of obstetrics and only later became a budding from it. Only at the end of the last century have completed this process, and pediatric hospitals separated from obstetric as an independent.
The hardest conditions of people's life in Czarist Russia was a consequence of the fact that the infant mortality rate was extremely high. It was exciting for advanced people of Russia, especially scientists. So, the big place in the formulation and development of health protection of children in child morbidity and mortality belongs M. Century Lomonosov. Among its diverse activities and interests M. Century Lomonosov not passed the main issues of protection of public health. Special attention he paid to children. The problem of fighting with huge child mortality he put forward as the most important state task. Precisely this problem and devoted a large part of one of the letters M Century Lomonosov count Shuvalov.
I. I. Shuvalov favorite of Empress Elizabeth, Maecenas, patron of arts and Sciences. Birthday Shuvalov, November 1, 1761, M. C. Lomonosov wrote him a special message on major state issues - improvement of agriculture, Commerce, defense of the country. First among these problems is quite remarkable! he opened widely developed the problem of saving children's lives, which is called "On the propagation and preservation of the Russian people".
"...The beginning of this I think the most important thing: the preservation and reproduction of the Russian people, what is the power and wealth of the entire state..." Among the proposed Lomonosov events in the first place are put forward:
1) measures to increase the number of born,
2) measures to preserve born.
M. C. Lomonosov first summarized causes associated with a high mortality rate of the Russian population, especially children, he joined them as questions, solving one problem. The great Russian scientist not only developed a rational measures to combat childhood morbidity and mortality and brought them under a scientific justification, but also promoted them with genuine enthusiasm enlightener of the XVIII century
For many years we see how their knowledge and talent invested in the fight to reduce child mortality prominent doctors of Russia: N. M Ambodik, which is the first in Russia began teaching obstetrics in Russian, K. Grum, which released three-volume "Guide to the upbringing, education and health of children" (1841 - 1846, is the first serious scientific-popular Russian edition on the protection of children's health; I. P. Lichtenshtatt, received first prize in the competition Solnechnogorskogo society for the book About the reasons of the high mortality of children in the first year of their lives and measures to her disgust" (1840); C. F. Khotovitsky, published in 1847 guide Pediatrics called "Pediatric".
High infant mortality in Russia was disturbed and the great Russian surgeon N. I. Pirogov. In 1879 in the "Diary of an old doctor"written "not without a second thought that maybe ever read and who are different", N. I. Pirogov, declared: "the Figure of mortality of young cats is slightly lower than the mortality rate of children, even in those periods of time when they are free from diphtheria".
Advanced medical scholars realized that the struggle for reducing child mortality in Russia is a complicated task which can be solved only by joining the efforts of not only doctors, but also public and state organizations. In 1906, the Society of Russian doctors in Moscow was established by Commission on combating child mortality, which in its work has been guided by developed Society plan of study and ways of reducing child mortality. On the initiative of the Commission at the Society of Russian doctors in Moscow on X Pirogov Congress created a special section on the fight against child mortality. Here is what was said at the ceremonial meeting of the merged companies, arranged by the Board of the Pirogov society, the Chairman of the Commission D. E. Pea (chief doctor of the Sophia children's hospital):
"The Commission on combating child mortality, consisting in the Society of Russian doctors in Moscow, reveres the memory of N. I. Pirogov, a better citizen of the Russian land, giant in science and greatest public figure, a fighter for the liberation of the country, for the life of man!
In the dark age of ignorance he stood up for freedom of conscience, speech, press...
25 years ago he went to the grave, but his soul, his ideals alive, will live forever, they are immortal. Faithful to them the way in labour, science and inseparably with them the life of society for the benefit of the afflicted, tormented country, helpless, and dying in mass children...
Let us colossal energy, inexhaustible love for humanity that the greatest Russian physician, whose name we reverently say noble example in the fight against such serious public ailment as infant mortality in Russia! We all know that the fight against child mortality should be all creative forces of the country on the grounds of social reforms. Valiant fighter for human life inspires us to sustained, vigorous struggle..."
Active attention to the problem of infant mortality was not wasted. One of the expressions in practice increased attention to the health of children was the creation in 1834 special Nikolaev Zemstvo hospital in St. Petersburg - the first children's hospital in Russia, the third in Europe (the first children's hospital in Europe was established in 1769 at the center of Amstrong in London, the second - in 1802 in Paris).
Following the opening of the first - Nikolaev's hospital in St. Petersburg, the first Director of which was because Rauchfus, to create children's hospital in Moscow - Sophia (now-children's hospital # 13 im. N. F. Filatova) in 1842, Vladimir (now-children's hospital № 2 named. Rusakov).

N. F. Filatov
N. F. Filatov

Moscow school of clinical Pediatrics connected with the name of the largest domestic pediatrician Neil F. Filatova (1847 -1902). In that period, our domestic Pediatrics thanks N. F. Filatov and his closest disciples occupies a prominent place in world of Pediatrics.
After several years abroad and being a student of the best European pediatric schools, Filatov then, in turn, influenced the European paediatric thought. In the broadest sense of the word N. F. Filatov was a teacher for many Russian pediatricians of the end of XIX century and the first quarter of the XX century
As for the Soviet - most vivid and fruitful period of formation and growth of the national Pediatrics, then you will see in the special category "From the lineage..."

  • Dates in the history of Pediatrics
  • Brief historical sketch of the development of the national Pediatrics