The history of development of medicine

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History of medicine - the science about the development of medicine, its scientific directions, schools and problems, the role of individual scientists and scientific discoveries, according to the development of medicine from the socio-economic conditions, development of science, technology and public thought.
History of medicine is divided into General, studying the development of medicine in General and private, dedicated to the history of individual medical disciplines, sectors and issues associated with these disciplines.
Therapy originated in ancient times. The need to assist in injuries, childbirth have necessitated the accumulation of knowledge about some methods of treatment, drugs of plant and animal life. Along with the rational experience of treatment, which were passed from generation to generation, widespread had receptions, bearing the mystical nature - charms, spells, amulets.
The most valuable part of the rational experience was later used by scientific medicine. Professionals-physicians appeared many centuries before our era. With the transition to a slave society of medical assistance has largely been in the hands of representatives of different religions - there was the so-called temple, the priest medicine, which reviewed the disease as a punishment of God and the means of combating disease believed prayers and sacrifices. However, along with the temple medicine survived and continued to evolve medicine empirical. Accumulating medical knowledge and medical professionals in Egypt, Assyria and Babylonia, India and China opened a new cure for diseases. The birth of written language gave an opportunity to consolidate the experience of ancient healers: there were first medical writings.
Hippocrates A huge role in the development of medicine has played ancient Greek doctors. The famous physician Hippocrates (460 - 377, BC) taught doctors observation and the need for a careful study of the patient, he gave a classification of people according to the four temperaments (sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, melancholic), acknowledged the influence on the human environment, and believed that the task of the doctor is to help the natural forces of the body to overcome the disease. The views of Hippocrates and his follower Roman physician Galen (2nd century ad), made discoveries in the field of anatomy, physiology, lekarstvovedenija ("Galanova drugs"), which carried out the clinical observations, in particular on the pulse, has had a tremendous impact on the development of medicine.
In the middle ages medicine in the countries of Western Europe was at the mercy of the Church and was under the influence of scholasticism. The doctors diagnosed and treated based on observations of patients, and abstract reasoning and the references to the teachings of Galen, distorted by the scholastics and churchmen. The Church prohibited autopsiesthat held back the development of medicine. In this era, along with the works of Hippocrates and Galen in all countries of Europe the big influence on doctors had a progressive for that age fundamental work "Canon of medical science", created by a brilliant scientist (born in Bukhara, who lived and worked in Khorezm) Ibn-Sinaia (Avicenna; 980-1037), repeatedly translated into most European languages. Major philosopher, naturalist and physician Ibn Sina systematized medical knowledge of his era, enriching many branches of medicine.
The Renaissance, together with the development of science has brought new discoveries in medicine. A. Vesalius (1514-1564), who worked at the University of Padua and studied the human body by autopsy, in the fundamental work "On the structure of the human body" (1543) denied a number of misconceptions about human anatomy and marked the beginning of a new, truly scientific anatomy.
Among the scientists of the Renaissance, worryingly instead of medieval dogmatism and the worship of authorities new, experimental method, there was a lot of doctors. Made the first successful attempt to use the laws of physics and chemistry in medicine (astrofisica and jatrohimii, from the Greek. iatros - doctor). One of the outstanding representatives of this direction was Paracelsus.