Bread, bakery products

For making bread is used mainly wheat and rye flour, less corn and barley. For special types of bread and bakery products, except flour, water and salt are used sugar, milk, butter, eggs, malt flavouring and aromatic substances (thyme, vanilla, raisins, ginger and others). The consumption of bread varies considerably, and an average of 500-600 grams per day.
Bread and bakery products provide about one-third of the daily protein requirements. In terms of quality protein bread somewhat inferior animal proteins: they are underrepresented some indispensable amino acids - lysine, tryptophan, histidine, arginine. The digestibility of proteins bread varies from 62 to 90% depending on the variety. Bread is one of the main sources of carbohydrates. With the consumption of 500 grams of bread a day, the amount of carbohydrates exceeds 220, the Absorption of carbohydrates bread is great and is 89-98%. With bread receives a large number of minerals, especially potassium, phosphorus and iron. At the expense of bread and bread products is ensured by more than 25% of the daily requirement of potassium and phosphorus and more than half of the daily iron requirements. However, the absorption of some of them, such as phosphorus is low. Bread contains vitamins of group C. the Most high biological properties of different bread from a flour obtained from whole grains. With increasing grades of bread is depleted of minerals and vitamins.
Data on the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and certain minerals in various sorts of bread are given in table. 1 and 2.
Chemical composition and nutritional value of bread and some of bakeries

Content of vitamins in bread

Dietary nutrition is used breads special arrangements and destination. Among the most famous "doctor" bread made from whole grains with high content acrobatic, shell and embryonic parts; "floridly" bread with a minimum content of salts, especially NaCl; "protein" bread with a high content of protein and low in carbohydrates.
In terms of quality bread must meet the requirements of standards, be of benign raw materials and to be well baked. Important physico-chemical indices of quality of bread are moisture, porosity and acidity, limit values for different types of bread are presented in table. 3.
Physical-chemical indices of quality of bread
At infringement of technology of preparation of bread can detect lumps of salt, dry test, etc. arising out of nefromeda test. In addition, you can produce temper - porous dense and moist layer at the bottom cover. Bread with such defects should not be allowed on sale; the quality of bread influences and his aging is a complex reversible physical-chemical process associated with changes starch colloids bread. Aging is not the same as drying; these processes are distinct and are not connected. Stale bread restores the quality of freshly baked, if it be warming, but the taste of it partially lost. Benign bread should be smooth and free of large cracks and tears. Colour cover, depending on the form of bread should be from light-yellow to brown, without podgorelo and pallor. Cork should not pull away from crumb. Crumb must be porous and elastic; after a light finger pressure he must take its original shape. The taste and smell should correspond to this type of bread, not to have other flavors.
The after baking bread at the bakery shall be communicated to consumers cooled. The cooling of bread in the store-rooms with normal temperature is a slow process, accompanied by significant weight loss. The bakeries cooling bread occurs in special chambers by blowing his air flow with certain temperature and humidity.
At infringement of rules of storage (in conditions of high humidity) bread subject to moulding the development of moulds. Storage of wheat bread in conditions of high humidity and temperature (30 to 40 degrees) can lead to the multiplication of the bread of microorganisms: potato sticks, causing mucus rebirth and liquefaction crumb of bread, and pigmentoobrazuyushih bacteria causing the appearance of red spots on the crumb of bread.

Bread, bakery products. For preparation of bread the use of flour (wheat, rye, less corn, oat, barley), water, salt, yeast, and for special types of bread and bakery products - sugar, milk, eggs, butter, malt flavouring and aromatic substances (cumin, ginger, vanilla and others). All source products must meet the requirements of GOST.
Bread has a high nutritional value, good taste, easily absorbed; he does not become boring and can relatively be kept long. Bread is distributed as everyday food in most countries of the world.
The amount of consumption in different countries of the bread depends on habits and dietary habits of the population. In the USSR the daily consumption of bread is 600-800 g for people engaged in physical labor, and 300-400 g for knowledge workers.


The nutritional value of different kinds of bread and bakery products depends on the recipe of preparation, quality of raw materials and peculiarities of the technological process. Bread made of high-grade flour due to lower Content acrobatic substances absorbed better. Bread is an important source of protein, which contains 5-7%. Proteins bread amino acid composition somewhat inferior proteins of animal products due to lower content of lysine and tryptophan. The chemical composition, the caloric value and content of microelements and vitamins in bread and various bakery products shown in the table.
Baking industry produces wheat and rye bread in a large assortment, small bakery products, as well as diet bread intended for patients and convalescents. So, the protein bread-wheat recommended in diabetes, obesity, diathesis; protein-Trubny - when these diseases in cases when they are accompanied habitual constipation; salt-free (floridly) - at illnesses of kidneys, heart, hypertension and various inflammatory processes when they are accompanied by edema; wheat-Trubny (doctoral) bread for pregnant women, nursing mothers, nervous diseases and constipation; bread from wheat crushed grain for obesity, habitual constipation.
Crackers protein and wheat are used for the same disease, and that the bread of the protein of wheat, and also diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, colitis); salt-free crackers - with the same diseases as the salt-free bread, but in the accompanying diseases of gastrointestinal tract; rusks with low acidity - in diseases of the stomach (gastritis, peptic ulcer disease) during periods of exacerbation.
Rolls milk used to feed the children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, diseases of the stomach (gastritis, peptic ulcer disease), tuberculosis of the lungs; rolls of high caloric value - for baby food, nourishing diet fractures of bones, rickets, tuberculosis.
Bread of high humidity worse digested and absorbed. Bread high acidity due to the high content of lactic and acetic acids increases gastric secretion. Bread low porosity worse acquired due to poor impregnation of gastric juice.
The importance of organoleptic indicators. The bread good quality should be well baked, to be smooth and free of large cracks and tears, cork should be without podgorelo and pale, should not lag behind crumb. Crumb should be uniformly porous, with no sign of temper and traces of nefromeda.
The bread may be affected so-called potato (viscous) disease. It is caused by spore-forming microbe - potato sticks (You. mesentericus), disputes which are widely distributed, heat-resistant and in the baking process does not die. Contribute to the development of the potato bread sticks storage at temperature of 25-40°, high humidity, low acidity (pH = 7,0). Bread affected potato disease becomes sharp specific unpleasant smell becomes alislam fracture, a crumb in the affected areas extends thread. Such
bread is not suitable for the power and must be destroyed. In premises where they kept the bread, the affected potato disease, should be disinfected.
At long storage bread and dry bread products (biscuits and rusks) can be affected by mold. Moldy bread and dry bread products are wrong.
Wheat bread due to the development wonderful sticks (Bact. prodigiosum)that produce high humidity, low acidity and temperature around 25 degrees red pigment, can be covered mucous blood-red spots. This bread is not allowed to implementation.
At storage of bread due to changes in colloidal systems is his aging. Delay the process staling stabilizers (molasses and other) and freeze. Transportation of bread and bakery products by specialized vehicles in the trays. Bread should be kept in a special, well-ventilated room at temperature 16-18 degrees. Sampling of bread and bakery products for laboratory testing is performed in accordance with GOST 5667-51.
Cm. also Flour.