Chlorine

Chlorine Cl, is a chemical element VII group of the periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev, number 17, atomic weight (mass) 35,453, valency in compounds from -1 to +7. In free state, yellow-green, with sharp choking odor, poisonous gas; molecule consists of two atoms (Cl2). Soluble in water and organic liquids.
The composition of the human body is about 0.15% of the chlorine, which comes from food, mostly in the form of sodium chloride. Ions Cl - play an important role in maintaining the osmotic pressure of blood, and the regulation of water balance, acid-base balance in the formation of hydrochloric acid gastric juice, etc. From the body is excreted in the urine, sweat and faeces.
It is used for receiving of hydrochloric acid (see) and some organic compounds, chlorination of drinking and sewage waters, in the production of bleaching and disinfecting agents (see Bleach), for the destruction of rodents pests of agriculture (see agricultural Pesticides).
Irritates the mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract.
Store and chlorine is transported under pressure of 6 atmospheres. in steel cylinders protective color, which in the upper part of the green line.
Acute poisoning. Inhalation of high concentrations of chlorine is developing so-called fulminant form of defeat. The victim's panting, his face turns blue, the movement of necoordinirovannami, pulse frequent and then filiform. Death comes quickly in the reflex stop breathing. When several smaller concentrations of chlorine severe form of defeat, reflex stops breathing in short, breathing resumed, but becomes frequent, surface, convulsions, breathing stops through 5-25 minutes after inhalation of chlorine. Death occurs from the burn the lungs.
In case of poisoning average and low concentrations of chlorine victim is experiencing a sharp pain in the chest, pain in the eyes, slezotechenie. Occurs painful dry cough. 2-3 hours after inhalation of chlorine increased shortness of breath, edema of the lungs characterized by the appearance of foam yellow or reddish sputum with a large number of mucus.
In light of cases of poisoning by chlorine limited redness of the conjunctiva, the soft palate and pharynx, asthmatic bronchitis, a small breath and often vomiting. Sometimes in edema and inflammation of the lungs.
Chronic poisoning by chlorine is manifested in the form of gum disease, nasal mucosa, chronic bronchitis; prolonged contact with Cl2 leads to caries. Chlorine in high concentration may cause acute dermatitis, sometimes going in eczema.
First aid in case of poisoning - clean air, rest, heat, as early as possible inhalation of oxygen. Hospitalization. With symptoms of irritation of the upper respiratory tract inhalation of spray or 2% solution of thiosulfate (Hypo) sodium 0.5% solution of sodium bicarbonate (soda), warm milk with Borjomi mineral water or soda, coffee.
Precautions: sealing equipment, systematic monitoring of the content of chlorine in the air of industrial premises, individual gas masks.
MAC in the air of industrial premises 1 mg/m3.

Chlorine (Chlorum, Cl) is a chemical element of main group VII group of the periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev, applies to halogen-free. Ever since. room 17, at. mass (ATA. weight) 35,453, valency from -1 to +7. It is known 2 stable and 9 of radioactive isotopes.
Free chlorine is found in volcanic gases. Compounds, mainly metal chlorides contained in all natural waters, rocks and soils. The major minerals, halite NaCl, sylvinite NaCl·KCl, carnallite KCl·MgCl2·6H2O and other chlorine Ions contained in plant and animal tissues. The human body contains up to 0.15 wt.% chlorine. Comes with chlorine food mainly in the form of NaCl.
Chlorine ions are involved in maintaining at a certain level of osmotic pressure of the blood and other physiological liquids, in regulation, water and mineral metabolism, acid-alkaline balance in the formation of hydrochloric acid gastric juice and other Displays chlorine in the urine and sweat.
The distribution of chlorine between blood and tissues, his removal from the body are regulated by a number of hormones. Kidney damage, prolonged vomiting, and other pathological phenomena chlorine content in the blood and tissues changes until gipohloremia.
Get chlorine by electrolysis of chlorides. Chlorine - yellow-green, with a pungent smell, a poisonous gas. Approximately 2.5 times heavier than air. Density 3,214; temperature PL - 101,3 degrees; temperature instrumentation or 34.7 degrees. Soluble in water (0.7 g of chlorine in 100 g of H2O at the temperature of 20 degrees), carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide, and other organic solvents. Chlorine is very active forms compounds with almost all elements. Especially energetically connected with hydrogen, forming hydrogen chloride Hcl (see Hydrochloric acid), and metals. Many metals, such as Na, Cu, Sn, and others, are burning in the chlorine. Connection with carbon, nitrogen, oxygen receive indirect way.
Oxygen compounds of chlorine strong oxidants. These include hypochlorous acid НClO (formed when chlorine dissolution in water - chlorine water) and its salts - hypochlorites (see Bleach), hypochlorous acid anhydride Cl2O and chlorine dioxide ClO2 - gases, are decomposed with the explosion. Anhydride chloric acid Cl2O7- volatile liquid, exploding on impact. Also known chloride acid НClO2 and its salts - chlorite, Chornovola acid HClO3 and its salt - chlorates, of which a wide practical importance vertoletov salt KClO3, perchloric acid HClO4 and its salts - perchlorate.
Use chlorine for chlorination of drinking water and sewage in the production of chlorine-organic and inorganic chlorine compounds, for selection of rare metals from ores, bleaching of paper pulp and the tissues, destruction of agricultural pests, disinfection and other
Chlorine irritates the mucous membranes of the eyes, the respiratory organs, causing choking, coughing, at high concentrations - lung damage. Maximum permissible concentration of chlorine in the air 0,001 mg/L. the First aid in case of poisoning by chlorine - clean air, rest, heat, warm milk with Borjomi mineral water, oxygen inhalation.