Holinoliticescoe tools

Holinoliticescoe means a substance that blocks the effects of acetylcholine, which is a mediator in the transfer of proceedings in various parts of the nervous system. In accordance with primary holinoliticakih effects on one or the other nervous system distinguish ganglioblokirute funds (see), curariform (see Relaxants), atropinopodobnye and Central cholinergic funds.
To atropinopodobnye means, in addition to atropine (see)are scopolamine (see), gomatropin (see), metazin, platifillin (see), Sarrazin (see). They inhibit the transfer of excitation from postganglionarnyh cholinergic fibers on the digestive, sweat and other glands, the smooth muscles and heart. This reduces sweating, secretion of digestive glands, enlarged pupils, relaxes the muscles of the bronchi, the gastrointestinal tract, bile - and urinary tract, increased heart reduction.
Atropinopodobnye funds are used in bronchial asthma, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, renal, hepatic and intestinal colic. As the spasms of smooth muscle bodies called, as a rule, pain, atropinopodobnye funds, relieving spasms, have a soothing effect. In anesthesiological practice atropinopodobnye funds are used before surgery. They warn reflex reactions which may occur in connection with the initiation of the vagus nerve under the influence of drugs: oppression heart activity, respiration and others In eye practice atropinopodobnye tools are widely used for diagnostic purposes to extend pupils in the study of the fundus and for the determination of true refractive ability of the lens. As under the influence holinoliticakih circular muscle iris and the ciliary muscle lose mobility, these substances are applied with the aim of ensuring peace in inflammatory and traumatic damages of the eyes.
To Central cholinergic means, acting mainly on the Central nervous system include amizil (see), Dinesen (see), Rebetol (see), metamail (see), retinol (see), tropatsin (see), trihexyphenidyl (see). Retinol, tropatsin, cyclodol, Rebetol, Dinesen used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Amizil and metamizol used as sedatives (see).
A number holinoliticakih combines expressed atropinopodobnye and ganglioblokirtee effect. Such tools include meant (see), Mestral (see) - rubroman (see). Some of holinoliticakih - aprofen (see), benzatin (see) - along with cholinergic action and have direct antispasmodic effect on smooth muscles. All these substances are mainly used as spasmolytic drug (see).
When applying holinoliticakih care should be taken in dose and take into account the possibility of increased individual sensitivity of the patients. Small overdose can cause tachycardia, dry mouth, the ccomodation. The Central anticholinergic can also cause disorders of the Central nervous system: dizziness, a feeling of intoxication, hallucinations. In case of poisoning atropinopodobnye substances should be introduced neostigmine (1 ml 0.05% subcutaneously or intravenously). Cholinolytic drugs contraindicated with glaucoma.

Holinoliticescoe funds (holinolitiki) - substances, the main pharmacological properties of which is the ability to lessen or prevent the action of acetylcholine and holinomimeticakih funds.
Holinoliticescoe funds are a competitive antagonist acetylcholine. Suggest that they block the cholinergic receptors of the body and prevent the development usually caused azetilholinom reactions. On the processes of synthesis and release of acetylcholine nerve endings holinoliticescoe tools doesn't impact. Chemical structure holinoliticakih very flexible. Active holinolitiki known among representatives of different chemical classes of compounds: simple and complex of amino esters, aminoamides, aminoalcohols and other
The ability to suppress mainly muskarinovoe or nikotinopodobnye the action of acetylcholine holinoliticescoe funds are divided into m-holinolitiki (muscarinic) and n-holinolitiki (nicotinelik). Among n-holinolitikov substances with a predominant effect on synapses vegetative gangliev in connection with the peculiarities of action and therapeutic application of United under the name ganglioblokirute funds (see). Substances, operating mainly in the field of somatic neuromuscular synapse, highlight the group curariform funds (see), or muscle relaxants (see). Holinolitiki, in breach of initiation in the field of cholinergic synapses of the Central nervous system, make up a group of Central anticholinergic agents. The ability to exert influence on the various links in the neuro-reflex regulation of body functions leads to a great practical importance holinolitikov.
As a drug widely used natural holinolitiki: some alkaloids [atropine (see), scopolamine (see), platifillin (see)], drugs belladonna, intoxication, henbane, which is used alone or as components of complex products. These drugs include, for example, bellataminala (similar to drug bellaston produced in Czechoslovakia), containing in 1 tablet 0.02 grams of phenobarbital, 0.0003 g ergotamine-tartrate, 0.0001 g the amount of alkaloids krasavki, and solutan containing 1 ml: herb extracts liquid 0.01 g, extract liquid dope 0,016 g, extract, chamomile extract liquid is 0.017 grams of ephedrine hydrochloride is 0.017 grams of sodium iodide 0.1 g, procaine 0,004 g, glycerin and water, alcohol-to 1 ml
A significant place is now occupied by the synthetic holinolitiki. Among them there is connection with high selectivity of action, which makes them more convenient for practical application and reduces the frequency of adverse reactions. Anticholinergic properties have not only the drugs belonging to the group holinolitikov, but also some antihistamines drugs (Dimedrol, promethazine), mestnoanesteziruyuschee tools, etc. however, a number holinoliticakih except holinoliticski action, has an anaesthetic effect, shows antihistaminics activity, spasmolytic action.

Holinolitiki use in various fields of medicine. They are used in therapeutic clinic of diseases accompanied by spasms of smooth muscles (pilorospazm, intestinal, liver and kidney cramps, bronchial asthma and other). Holinolitiki, combining neurotropic and relaxing directly myotropic action (for example, aprofen, Tiffen), different electoral spasmolytic activity. Holinolitiki, having along with spasmolytic activity
ability to reduce the secretion of gastric juice is effective in the treatment of peptic ulcer of stomach and duodenum. The drugs have a beneficial effect in these diseases are those Quaternary ammonium compounds, such as meant (see), which inhibit the motor and secretory function of the stomach, blocking peripheral m-holinoreaguykh systems and n-holinoreaguykh systems autonomic ganglia. Antisecretory action Quaternary ammonium salts used for the suppression of the salivary secretions and bronchial glands. For these purposes it is very convenient to use is metazin. Holinolitiki, causing significant relaxation of smooth muscle sphincter iris when introducing them into the conjunctival SAC, is used in ophthalmology for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Certain value anticholinergic agents have in diseases associated with functional disorders of the Central nervous system. The most widely used they found in the treatment of hyperkinesia Central origin (parkinsonism, Parkinson's disease and others). Some cholinolytic drugs used in psychiatry as tranquilizers, in anesthesiology to enhance the effects of drugs and sleeping pills as antiemetic for the prevention and treatment of sea and air sickness.
Important applications holinolitikov is their use as antidotes in case of poisoning cholinomimetic and anticholinesterase agents. With long-term use holinoliticakih their effectiveness may be reduced, so in the treatment of chronic diseases (Parkinson's disease and others) it is recommended to alternate various anticholinergic funds. Toxic effects holinolitikov can appear when overdose, hypersensitivity and is associated with anticholinergic properties of drugs. The most common side effects when taking holinolitikov are tachycardia, dry mouth, the ccomodation. The Central anticholinergic can also cause disorders of the Central nervous system: dizziness, a feeling of intoxication, hallucinations. The most serious contraindication to the use of anticholinergic - glaucoma.
Cm. also Sedatives, cholinomimetics.