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Chronic enteritis and enterocolitis

The processes of digestion, absorption and removal of food residues in the environment are carried out by the intestines thin and thick intestine. The intestines responds to damage the dysmotility and absorption functions, which leads to diarrhea, constipation or symptoms of insufficient assimilation of nutrients.
Diagnosis of intestinal diseases is quite a challenge, since the response to different harmful effects diversity of symptoms and disorders arise as with the defeat of the mucous membrane of the intestines and stomach diseases, liver and pancreas, as well as a number of General (endocrine and metabolic) diseases.
It is impossible not to note that currently in the clinical literature with the description of intestinal diseases there is no consensus about the terminology. Some authors operate in traditional terms ("gastroenteritis", "enteritis, enterocolitis"), others are struggling that in the name of diagnosis contained etiological and pathogenic characteristics. This Chapter continues the terminology used in previous editions.
Some the full statistical picture of the incidence and prevalence of intestinal diseases in athletes not. The literature devoted to this disease, small. Meanwhile, according to N. Century of Elstein (1970, 1984), in athletes among the diseases of internal organs, chronic diseases thin and thick intestines amount to 9.1 %, and among all gastroenterological diseases - 26,1 %. The influence of physical loadings on the activity of the intestine in sports not studied enough. There are only individual work, indicating that at the big sports loads increase the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system can cause diarrhea. However, there is evidence of slowing intestinal motility by prolonged exposure maximum and submaximal exercise.
The causes of chronic enteritis and colitis in athletes do not differ from those of the rest of the people. The most important of them - infection, especially bacterial dysentery, giardiasis or other parasitic infestation, allergies, malnutrition, neuroendocrine effects, failure of function of pancreas, etc. But we should not forget about the special "background"where are these factors in sports, i.e. a significant, and sometimes excessive, physical activity, duration and intensity of which in recent years is increasing, and the number of training comes to 12-18 in a weekly cycle. Received N. Fodoros evidence that while running intestinal blood flow is reduced by 80 %, convinced that the problem of nutrition in modern sport requires significant attention. Besides the General information on the energy value and the balance of individual products in the diet that are required based recommendations about the intervals for meals, depending on the schedule of trainings and their nature, the list of desirable and undesirable products and their balance in the daily ration for each or groups of sports, and so on, Now, in most cases, coaches and doctors regulate the nutrition of athletes, proceeding only from personal experience and financial possibilities, not guided by a sufficiently developed scientific calculations.
In chronic enteritis lie disorder of the function of the small intestine, maldigestion or malabsorption of nutrients (malabsorption) of varying severity. Therefore, the clinical picture combines local and General symptoms. The latter include fatigue, lack of energy, weight loss, sweating, palpitations. You may experience pain in the joints of an uncertain nature - such as "volatile", low body temperature, hypotension. Typical symptoms are stupid or dull pain in the upper abdomen, bloating, especially in the middle and lower abdomen, diarrhea. Diarrhea intestinal type cause patients 1-4 bowel movements a day, chair usually a liquid or pasty, rich. However, an isolated lesion of small bowel diarrhea can alternate with normal intestinal function. If there is no accompanying inflammation in the colon and rectum, enteritis not accompanied tenesmus and bleeding. Appetite violated not always. A characteristic feature may be an intolerance to some of the patients milk, milk soup, ice cream, use of which is cramping, nausea, flatulence, diarrhea. Objectively usually defined soreness in the umbilical and hipogastrica areas, and at the point Porges (left and above the navel), expressed rumbling, flatulence and "splash" in the field of the blind and the small intestine.
In some cases leading to disease are complaints of a General nature (fatigue, weakness, reduced efficiency and sports results)that can be incorrectly interpreted by the physician as fatigue. This is graphically illustrated by the example given N. Century Elistano (1984).