Chronic enteritis

Under chronic enteritis, you should understand the structural changes of the mucous membrane of the small intestine (degeneration, inflammation and atrophy) with recurrent or persistent violation of the functions of the body, causing symptoms.
The etiology and pathogenesis. For the emergence of histopathological changes, characteristic of chronic enteritis, essential changes in the intensity of normal regeneration (restoration) of the mucous membrane of the small intestine. Daily in the lumen of the small intestine person is reset 2,4-1010 epithelial cells (Croft et al., 1968) and the same is formed again. In the basis of structural changes in the mucous membrane is a violation of physiological regeneration (Craemer, 1967). In this regard, the etiology of chronic enteritis may be different, and the changes of the small intestine in them is not specific (Sheehy, Floch, 1964), i.e. the reaction to pathological effects in the form of structural changes - the same type.
From exogenous causes leading to chronic enteritis, you should indicate infection (Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, viruses) and invasion by parasites (giardiasis, opisthorchiasis, ascariasis). This is followed by ionizing radiation and the effects of various poisons, including in production conditions (arsenic, phosphorus, lead). It is essential that the toxic factors leading to the emergence of chronic enteritis, as a rule, act a long time (sometimes years!) in very small amounts. For exogenous reasons should also be referred the effects of some medicines, especially with long-term application (salicylates, drugs arsenic, neomycin, cytostatic agents. Chronic enteritis often observed after resection of the stomach and sometimes after the imposition of gastrojejunostomy or operation vagotomy.
From endogenous etiological factors leading to chronic enteritis, can be called chronic renal failure, various skin diseases (psoriasis, eczema). Pathological changes in the small intestine may be observed in patients with chronic gastritis with decreasing secretory function of the stomach, chronic pancreatitis, hepatitis (liver cirrhosis), collagenoses, malignant diseases of different localization.
As follows from the enumeration of reasons, chronic enteritis - polietiologic disease. Along with this draws attention to the significant discrepancy between the relatively small number of patients with chronic enteritis and those of them, which was supposed to be, if in each case the action listed exogenous and endogenous etiological factors have led to the development of this disease. Indeed, recognizing as the etiologic factor of chronic enteritis resection of the stomach, it is impossible not to pay attention to the following. In USSR annually patients 60 000-70 000 resections of the stomach. Of them over the next 15 years after surgery, chronic enteritis sick of not more than 10%. Practically, such a causal factor of chronic enteritis, as gastrectomy (absolutely consider!), in 90% of patients will not be realized. Said gives the basis to recognize that the emergence of structural changes of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, characterized by chronic enteritis, some listed etiological factors are not sufficient. We quite agree with the opinion of E. A. Beyul (1965), according to which chronic enteritis when the action of the etiological factors sick people with congenital metabolic in the intestinal wall. It is possible that the matter is not only in violation of the currency, but also in changing the activity of complex regulatory mechanisms (the nervous and hormonal)that operate a process aimed at continuous update (regeneration) of the mucous membrane of the small intestine. These changes can be either congenital or acquired. It is not excluded that the climate factor, in particular the high frequency of diseases in hot climates (I. E. Atakhanov, 1966), connected with the effect of higher ambient temperature on the nervous and hormonal control of regenerative processes in the mucosa of the small intestine.
Therefore, in the implementation of many of the causal factors leading to the development of chronic enteritis, are essential features (congenital and acquired) metabolism in the gut wall and regulation violations of regenerative processes for continuous update of the mucous membrane of the small intestine.