Cartilage

Cartilage is a type of connective tissuecomposed of cartilage cells (chondrocytes) and a large number dense intercellular substance. Serves as a support. Chondrocytes have different shapes and are single or in groups cartilage inside of cavities. The intercellular substance contains continuie fiber, similar in composition to the collagen fibers, and base material, rich chondromalacia.
Depending on the structure of a fibrous component of the intercellular substance there are three types of cartilage: hyaline (glassy), elastic (net) and fibrous (connective tissue).
Pathology cartilage see a Leakage, the Chondrodystrophy.

Cartilage (tela cartilaginea)- a type of connective tissue characterized by the presence of dense intercellular substance. In the last distinguish the main amorphous substance, which contains compounds chondroitinase acids from proteins (chondromalacia) and fiber hendrina, close in composition of collagen fibers. Fibrils cartilage are of primary fibers and have a thickness of 100-150+. Electron microscopy of the fibers of the cartilage tissue, unlike actually collagen fibers becomes just an obscure the alternation of light and dark areas without a clear periodicity. Cartilage cells (chondrocytes) are located in the cavities of the basic substance singly or in small groups (isogenic group).
The free surface of the cartilage covers the dense fibrous connective tissue - nahradnich (perichondrium), in the inner layer which are undifferentiated cells chondroplasty. Covering the articular surfaces of the bones and cartilage tissue nadgraditi has not. The growth of cartilage at the expense of reproduction of chondroblasts producing base material and later transformed into chondrocytes (appositional growth) and through the development of a new basic substance around chondrocytes (interstitial, intussusception growth). When regeneration may also occur development of cartilage tissue by homogenization of the basic substance fibrous connective tissue and turning it fibroblasts into cartilage cells.
The supply of cartilaginous tissue is by diffusion of substances from the blood vessels nadgraditi. In the fabric of cartilage nutrients get from synovial fluid or blood vessels surrounding bone. Nerve fibers also localized in nadgradnja where separate branches bezmacernyh nerve fibers can penetrate into the cartilage.
In the embryogenesis cartilage tissue develops from mesenchyme (see), have grown closer between elements which appear layer of the basic substance (Fig. 1). In this skeletogenesis the Bud formation of hyaline cartilage, temporarily representing all major part of the human skeleton. In the future, this cartilage may be replaced by bone or differentiate into other types of cartilage tissue
Known species of cartilaginous tissue.
Hyaline cartilage (Fig. 2)the person formed cartilages respiratory, thoracic all edges and joint surfaces of the bones. In the light microscope base material it appears to be homogeneous. Cartilage cells or isogenic group them surrounded oxytelinae capsule. In differentiated areas of cartilage there are adjacent to the capsule basophilic area and located outwards from her oxytelinae zone; together, these areas form the cell area, or handanovic ball. The complex chondrocytes with continuum ball is usually taken as a functional unit of cartilage - hendron. The main substance between gongronema called interterritorial spaces (Fig. 3).
Elastic cartilage (synonym: net, elastic) differs from hyaline presence in the main substance of the branching network of elastic fibers (Fig. 4). It was the auricle, the epiglottis wrisbergii and Santorini cartilages of the larynx.
Fibrous cartilage (synonym connective tissue) is located in the transition areas of the dense fibrous connective tissue in hyaline cartilage and differs from the latter by the presence in the main substance of these collagen fibers (Fig. 5).
Pathology cartilage - see Chondrite, Chondrodystrophy, Chondroma.

the structure of the cartilage Fig. 1-5. The structure of the cartilage.
Fig. 1. Histogenesis cartilage:
1 - mesenchymal syncytium;
2 - young cartilage cells;
3 - layer of the basic substance.
Fig. 2. Hyaline cartilage (low magnification):
1 - nahradnich;
2 - cartilage cells;
3 - the main substance.
Fig. 3. Hyaline cartilage (large increase):
1 - isogenic group of cells;
2 - cartilaginous capsule;
3 - basophilic area continuado ball;
4 - oxytelinae area continuado ball;
5 - interterritorial space.
Fig. 4. Elastic cartilage:
1 - elastic fibers.
Fig. 5. Fibrous cartilage.