Humoral regulation

Humoral regulation is carried out primarily through the endocrine glands. Gland produce these special complex substances - hormones that of the tissue of the gland are absorbed into the bloodstream and spread it across the body. All we have 8 different glands of internal secretion. In a cavity of a skull, spliced with the brain, lie pituitary and pineal gland. On the neck, below the solid cartilages of the larynx, are the thyroid gland and 4 (two on each side) of the parathyroid gland, added to its back surface. In the chest, behind the breastbone, lies goiter iron. In the abdominal cavity and around it there are: part of the tissue of the pancreas (called the islets of Langerhans), adrenal gland (they are in the form of caps on top of each kidney and include essentially, 2 self-gland - the medulla and cortex) and, finally, the sex glands, which are placed in men only superficially, and women hidden in the depth of the abdominal cavity. Paired, i.e. existing and right and left are only the adrenal glands, sexual and parathyroid glands.
The most important gland of internal secretion is the pituitary gland. No wonder he even territorially connected with the brain. The pituitary gland is called sometimes the conductor of internal secretion, because it produces many different hormones affecting Other glands and manage. When the underdevelopment of the pituitary or insufficient function of the person behind in growth. Those midgets who act in the circus and have their own theatre, are not only some special people, and just treat people with poor function of the pituitary gland. Hyperfunction of the pituitary gland, i.e., the opposite phenomenon (for example, the excessive development of cancer), leads to the excessive growth, gigantism. Famous giants to 260 cm and more. If strengthening the work of the pituitary gland with the tumor it is not a child and an adult begin hard to grow nose, fingertips, chin and other protruding parts of the face and extremities. This disease is called acromegaly requires timely visit to a doctor. One of the many pituitary hormones affect the uterus. He stands out in pain. However, excessive pain can even reduce its allocation.
The thyroid gland secretes the hormone thyroxin. It contains iodine. Thyroxine is an important participant of oxidative processes in the body. In areas of poor with iodine, iron, sometimes considerably growing, forming a so-called endemic goiter. By the way, should not be mixed goiter - proliferation of thyroid goiter gland that lies behind the breastbone. Frequent disruption of thyroid gland is its increased activity. This strengthens the processes of combustion in the body, the person becomes thin, nervous, appears exophthalmia, quickens the pulse. In such cases it is necessary to remove a large part of the gland. Previously, sometimes gland was removed completely, and often people quickly died in convulsions. It turned out that this removes small parathyroid glands. They control the exchange of calcium in the body. When removed, calcium disappears from the blood, and come severe disorders of the brain, is incompatible with life.
Vnutricletocny the part of the pancreas manages the exchange of carbohydrates. The hormone insulin is necessary for the normal use of sugar, either in terms of its combustion in the tissues, but in terms of its transformation in the liver backup glycogen. At disease of the pancreas begins severe disease - diabetes. Insulin is secreted little, and sugar cannot be used by the body is excreted in the urine. Man suffers from severe hunger, but be satisfied, he can't. Before diabetes inevitably led to death. In our century have learned to produce insulin from the pancreas of the treated animals in slaughterhouses. Many thousands of people preserve the life and health through regular injections of insulin. There are a number of synthetic drugs that help such patients.
Important gland are the adrenal glands. Among their hormones are particularly known allocated substance of the brain this gland adrenaline. It works quite similar to the sympathetic nervous system. Already this underlines the close relationship between neural and humoral regulation. Especially emphasizes this connection the outdoor scientists fact that the momentum going on the branch of the sympathetic nerve, causing the nerve endings highlight norepinephrine - next of kin of the same adrenaline. Norepinephrine is a mediator - an intermediary in the transfer of momentum from the nerve to the working fabric. At hard work and strong agitation, in the game of football athlete and while watching the game in a passionate fan not only excited sympathetic nerve and released into the blood adrenaline. Very important are the hormones of the adrenal cortex, the so-called corticosteroids. They regulate mineral and water metabolism of the body, and most importantly - control its reactivity. They take part in the reactions physiological tension, stress, which is accompanied, in particular, the struggle of the organism from pathogenic microbes. To these questions we will be back in a conversation 11.
Of particular importance in the body have sex glands. First, it is a gland external glands that produce and emit outside the sex cells. Secondly, the sex glands secrete in the blood of a number of hormones. These hormones help puberty, and also affect a number of other systems and organs. So castration - delete sex glands - abruptly changes many parties physiological ensemble.