Enzymes class hydrolases

Catalyzed reaction Localization in tissues Physiological role and diagnostic value

Acid phosphatase

Hydrolyzes esters of phosphoric acid to alcohol and free orthophosphoric (H3RO4) acid In the red blood cells, liver cells and prostate cancer Activity increases with metastasis of prostate cancer

Alkaline phosphatase

The same In bone tissue, the liver, kidney, prostate and mammary glands Activity increases with rickets in children, the decay and tumors of bone tissue, with viral hepatitis, obstructive jaundice and some other diseases

Glucose-6-phosphatase

Hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate with the formation of glucose and the free phosphoric acid Only in the liver The action of the enzyme leads to the increase of glucose in the blood, flowing from the liver. This way of formation of glucose from glycogen through an intermediate stage (glucose-1-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate) is of special importance for the regulation of blood sugar levels

Lipase

The hydrolysis of fats with the formation of free fatty acids and glycerol In the gastrointestinal tract; produced in the pancreatic gland and in the mucous membrane of the stomach and small intestine. There are in the blood Activity increases with pancreatitis, obesity, gout. Activity decreases with tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis. (Activates the bile acids and their salts.)

Cholinesterase

The hydrolysis of acetylcholine In plasma, the lining of the intestine, liver and pancreas Activity in the serum decreased in infectious hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, extensive myocardial infarction, and in case of poisoning organophosphorus compounds

Protease (pepsin, trypsin, chymosin chymotrypsin)

The hydrolysis of proteins and their decay products (polypeptides) to amino acids In the pancreas, mucosa of the small intestine and the liver, kidneys, serum, cardiac and skeletal muscles, the uterus and urine Activity increases in infectious mononucleosis, burns, pneumonia, diseases of the liver. For the diagnosis of particular importance are Latinoamericana, aminopeptidase and prolease

Urease

The hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide (carbonic acid) An enzyme found in plants, in many organisms, mollusks, arthropods; in mammals and humans not found Crystal urease used in clinical practice in the quantitative determination of urea in biological objects