Gimenolepidoz - diseases caused by tape worms Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm) and Hymenolepis diminuta (tapeworm rat). Most clinical and epidemiological importance, the agent which is the dwarf tapewormHymenolepis nana (Fig). Its length 1-5 cm, the head with four suction cups and hooks, segments of about 200. Parasitizes in the small intestine. With the feces of patients allocated Mature eggs of helminths. Infection hymenolepididae occurs when ingestion of eggs appeared at the hands as a result of contact with sick and contaminated by their faeces, is utensils - pots and penetrate the fibers of the mucous membrane and develop here in larvae of cysticercoids. After 6 to 8 days cysticercoids face the cavity of the intestine and grow into adult worms.
Manifested gimenolepidoz abdominal pain, nausea, decrease in appetite, headache, dizziness; often diarrhea; some children epileptiform seizures; in the blood often eosinophilia, sometimes anemia. Diagnosis detection in Calais eggs dwarf tapeworm (see Helminthological research methods).
rat tapewormHymenolepis diminuta has a length of 20 - 60 see Parasitizes in the intestine of rats and mice, and occasionally in humans, larvae - grain moth, cockroaches, fleas. The infection occurs when a person eating the test and badly baked bread with insects. In a patient experiencing gastrointestinal disorders, headaches. Diagnosis detection in Calais eggs rat tapeworm.
Treatment. Apply fenasal, extract male fern, Akrikhin with pumpkin seeds. The course of treatment fenasalom when invasion Hymenolepis nana - three seven-day cycle with intervals of 5-7 days; after a month spend another loop. In day 1 of each cycle dose fenasala: children up to 3 years - 0.5 g; 3-6 years - 1 g; 6-9 years to 1.5 g; over 9 years, 2 g; in the remaining days to patients of all ages 0.5 g Daily dose of the drug pour 20 ml of hot water, RUB, add 50 ml of water and gives the patient to drink at once on an empty stomach. Laxative appointed only in day 1 of each cycle through 3 hours after administration fenasala.
Extract male fern give in three one-day cycle every 7-8 days; in 1-day training - overnight enema, on the 2nd day in the evening a laxative, on the 3rd day on an empty stomach enema and after 30 minutes after a chair in one or two reception at intervals of 5 to 10 minutes extract male fern in the following doses: children 1-2 years - 0.2 g, 3-4 years - 0.3 g; 5-6 years - 0.5 g; 7-8 years - 0.6 g; 9-10 years - 0,7; And -12 years 0.9 g; 13-14 years - 1 year; over 14 years - 1,5, If necessary after 2 months. spend the second year, a year - no more than two courses.
When treating Akrikhin with decoction of pumpkin seeds preparation ordinary - 2 days. On the 3rd day on an empty stomach - enema. After easing - Akrikhin with 3% a solution of soda, after 10 minutes - broth from pumpkin seeds, after an hour and a laxative, after another hour - Breakfast. The course of treatment of the five cycles with the interval of 4 days. Dose of Akrikhin: children 4-6 years - 0.15 g; 7-12 years - 0.2 g; 13-16 years -0,25 g; over 16 years - 0,3 g Broth from pumpkin seeds: children 4 years of age - 100 - 150 g of seeds; 5-7 years - 200 g; 10 - 16 years - 300 g; over 16 years - 500g
Treatment for invasion tsepnem mouse spend in one day. Extract male fern (adult - 4 g) provide for half an hour; after an hour and a saline laxative. Effective fenasal, Akrikhin, pumpkin seeds.
Prevention. Hygienic measures, detection and treatment of patients. Prevention of gimenolepidoz caused Hymenolepis diminuta, - deratization (see), pest control flour.

This disease is called small tape parasite length up to 2-4 inches, called dwarf tapeworm. Infected hymenolepiasis most often children (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5. The dwarf tapeworm (actual value).

Due to the nature of the parasite itself, and also because faeces are allocated Mature eggs (sometimes contained in the tapeworm segments), the spread is easy, but the disease continues for a very long time. To successfully combat the disease takes a long therapeutic and preventive measures.
What are features of these worms and why you want persistent struggle with them?
When already considered helminthic diseases new infections occur only after the eggs of parasites come out with faeces of humans and matured in the external environment. In other words, to multiply in the body of the host these worms can not. Dwarf tapeworm able to reproduce and inside of the body than are provided with the duration and severity of the disease. Added to this is that dwarf tsepni difficult to exile. This happens
because in the intestine, hatched embryos dwarf tapeworm penetrate the villi of the small intestine where they evolved, become larvae. Growing up, the larvae destroy the intestinal villi and attached to the wall by means of suction cups and hooks.
As a result of treatment are evicted, as a rule, those parasites who were in the intestinal lumen. Larvae can stay alive. Of them, over time, develop adult parasites and thus the disease continues.
For these reasons, the treatment is repeated several times, but in some cases does not bring success.
In children, the sick hymenolepiasis, often poor appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, bowel disorders. Headaches are persistent and prolonged, frequent dizziness. Children become Moody and irritable.
Sometimes there and seizures, epileptoid. Severe course of the disease is sometimes adults.
From this it is clear how important prevention of infection dwarf tapeworm. To observe rules of personal hygiene and food hygiene should be very strictly, especially in cases, when in the family or team that is a face, there are ill hymenolepiasis. Great attention should be paid to the implementation of the rules of hygiene of children who fall ill more often and in a more severe form.
Thorough hand washing with soap after visiting the toilet, before meals, use of individual towel, content of foods clean, protect them from insects and rodents, frequent bathing with change of linen, wet cleaning, boiling toys, disposal night pots with boiling water after use - mandatory rules to prevent gimenolepidoz. And, of course, you must make sure that children are not chewed nails, did not take into his mouth and fingers, contaminated toys and other items. Experience shows that prevention deliverance from this disease is significantly faster.