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Hypertensive status

The question of what hypotension should be considered a classic sign of high level of training of the sportsman should be revised, primarily because hypotension may occur according to different authors, all from 10-19% of the athletes. The idea of sports hypotension was created, apparently, because the lessons of sports, as well as physical labor if they are not excessive, lowering blood pressure, not exceeding, however, beyond the norm.
Because hypotension in athletes usually been regarded as a sign of fitness, it is not attracted the attention of physicians, and therefore very little account was taken of the possibility of the existence of pathological forms of hypotension.
Data on the incidence of hypotension in athletes cannot be compared with the percentage of hypotension among persons who are not involved in sports, as recent data are contradictory. So, according to the materials of different authors, hypotension among the population occurs in 0,7-22 % of cases. This is a huge variation is due, apparently, a different picture of the lower boundaries of normal blood pressure, and about who should be related to "hypotensive".
The number of athletes with isolated systolic pressure is, according to different authors, from 2.2 to 6.9%, with a decrease of only diastolic - 4.3-6.1 % with simultaneous decrease in both systolic and diastolic - from 1.5 to 3.5%. Athletes with once a certain reduction in blood pressure are 76.2 % of all athletes with hypotension, a multiple - 19.9% and with permanently reduced pressure - 3,9%.
In order to understand the question of hypotension in athletes, it is necessary to expand a little on modern condition of a question on hypotension at all.
Classification of hypertensive disease of the proposed lots. However, in our country it is generally accepted classification proposed N. S. Molchanov in 1962 According to this classification, all of hypotension are divided into 2 groups - physiological and pathological or adaptive.
Under physiological or adaptation hypotension refers to the decrease in blood pressure below 100 mm and 60 mm RT. senior inherent in healthy people, doing regular physical and mental stress, and not presenting any complaints. If these persons with careful clinical examination no pathological changes in the body that may be the reason for this decline is not detected, remain full ability to work and good health. Low blood pressure such people have kept for years, sometimes for the whole life, and is a variant of the norm, original installation regulate blood circulation.
Pathological hypotension is divided into acute and chronic. Acute hypotension is a manifestation of various forms of acute cardiovascular failure, i.e., shock, collapse, fainting, and is held at the elimination of these States. Chronic hypertension may be either primary, i.e. to be an independent disease (hypertensive illness), or secondary, or symptomatic, which is the manifestation of various diseases. Since the primary hypotension have been violations of the regulation of the circulatory system, this state some authors call neurocirculatory dystonia hypotonic type. Primary gipotenzia accompanied by a number of complaints and symptoms, indicating a violation of the functions of various organs and body systems. As regards the secondary hypotension, it is a permanent symptom of a number of diseases (disease Adisson, infectious diseases and intoxication). Hypotension is seen during chronic infections, often causing latent. The latter is particularly important in the evaluation of arterial hypotension in athletes. In the mechanism of hypotension leading role excessive expansion of periarterial and arterioles that I. M. Sechenov figuratively called cranes of the circulatory system. G. F. lang stressed that periarterial and arterioles are Executive "effector body" system, regulating blood pressure, and the main cause hypotension is a violation of the functions of this device. The expansion of periarterial and arteriol increases the permeability prekapilliarnae bed, which causes a compensatory increase in minutes of the circulation. However, this increase is inadequate to the increase in permeability prekapilliarnae bed, causing hypotension [Molchanov, N. With, 1962].
In the basis of the pathogenesis of primary hypotension are disorders of the Central nervous system, particularly the brain cortex. The factors causing these violations include emotional and physical overstrain, infringements of regulation of the circulatory system.