Personal identification

  • Peculiarities of identification in the forensic examination of the corpses of unknown persons
  • Laboratory research methods in forensic medicine eventually anyway subject to the goals and tasks of identification.
    The identification is called establishing of the identity of various phenomena, objects, items, persons on their distinctive and individual, unique features. Developed the theory of forensic identification - the doctrine of the General principles and rules of identification of the material of interest (for the manifestations of their properties in the past) through the use of special scientific methods. Scientific basis of forensic identification are the provisions of the Marxist-Leninist theory of knowledge about individual objects of the material world and the capacity for reflection, i.e. the ability of these objects interact with each other to reflect the (display) their properties to other objects.
    The basic principles of forensic identification can be expressed in the following form:
    1) the identification process involves identifiable (for which we need to solve the issue of identity and identifying objects (using and which addressed the issue of identity);
    2) objects of identification are divided into static and relatively unchanging that are sustainable in the period of time that defines their identity;
    3) the identification process includes analysis - depth study of objects and their properties using techniques and methods that complement each other and giving objective information about the object, and synthesis - a comparison of the studied objects and their assessment of the synthetic unity;
    4) every compare the sign should be studied in dynamics, because of the identifiable objects can appear in different forms and conditions; in addition, one should bear in mind the variability of symptoms depending on the time and the possibility of deliberate distortion characteristic.
    These basic principles in the theory of forensic identification fully apply to the identification of the objects of forensic medical examination. Identification - identification of a particular person on set all of the properties and attributes that distinguish it from other people.
    One of the main tasks of the preliminary investigation is establishing the identity of the victim or suspect to the crime.
    In the investigative practice it is necessary to establish the identity of a living person (for example, criminal, hiding from investigation authorities; detainee who refuse to give their name, surname or deliberately distorting them; the convicted person evading serving punishment) or body of the unknown and unrecognized entity, who died from violent impacts or dead suddenly.
    Identification as a living person, and the corpse is based on a combination of individual (uniqueness) of each person. These include gender, age, race, especially anatomical structure, anthropometric indicators antigenic properties, certain diseases, traces of different injuries, the changes caused by profession, tattoos and other

    fingerprinting (fingerprints)
    Fig. 98. The main types of papillary nodes fingers and zabytkowy; b - arc; in - loop.

    Fig. 99. Identification of a personality in the footsteps of papillary pattern (left - on items from the scene, right - print the suspect).

    When identification is of great importance fingerprinting - section of forensic science that studies the structure of skin patterns of fingers (Fig. 98), a figure which is strictly individual. Throughout human life (and after his death, until you develop expressed putrid changes) the form and features of the papillary patterns do not change. When surface damage not affecting the skin, papillary pattern is completely restored in its original state. These scientifically proven is the basis used now fingerprinting criminals; made this fingerprints hands are saved in a special Department of internal Affairs. At the repeated detention of the received fingerprint compare (special system) with already available in the files and thus identify the identity of the person, if it has been previously registered. Upon discovery of the corpses of unknown or unidentified persons by police officers with the participation of forensic medical expert produce their mandatory fingerprinting. If the deceased had previously been fingerprinting, his personality can be installed this way (Fig. 99). The location of papillary pattern on the soles of the feet also strictly individual for each person.
    In the search for criminals hiding from the bodies of inquest, investigation and court or deviating from punishment, is widely used drawing up the verbal portrait-description of the appearance of man on special rules using unified terms and signs. Correctly written, verbal portrait allows you to select the wanted person of the many similar and allows his identification. The main role in verbal portrait is given to the description of specific entity, but always and fully characterized the whole look of the person. At this point as static features defined alone (growth, the shape, the dimensions of the shoulders, the neck, the General form of a person in a full face and profile, details of the structure of the face, special signs in the form of deviations from the anatomical norms, absence of body parts, malformations and other)and dynamic (voice, gait, especially facial expressions and other).
    System describe a person by external features used by employees of the investigating authorities for subsequent summation of all installed data that serves the purpose of identification. As technical methods and means summation of external signs are used, in particular, preparation of "synthetic" and drawing portraits and the so-called composite, which is used for investigation of the identifiable persons Made (synthetic) portraits and "identikit" produces expert-criminalist of the many fragments of photographs of different persons by the method of composition (Fig. 100). Painted portraits of performing artists from the words of the persons who know the signs of a wanted man.verbal portrait
    Fig. 100. Verbal portrait.