Immobilization is a method of creating a stillness to ensure peace affected area of the body in injuries and diseases; primary measure prevent painful shock (see), especially in severe injuries of musculoskeletal system. Without reliable immobilization impossible to transport the victim. The absence or poor immobilization of fractures of the extremities may lead to secondary displacement of bone fragments, damage to nearby nerve trunks, large vessels and muscles of the sharp ends of the bone fragments.
There are temporary immobilization, or transport, and permanent, or therapeutic.
Transport immobilization is held in the procedure for the provision of first aid (for example, in case of injury during the transportation of the victim to the hospital. With gunshot wounds transport immobilization necessary even in the absence of a fracture, if there is significant damage to soft tissue, as the rest largely prevents the development of infection. For temporary immobilization apply different type of tyre (see Bus, splinting), and in the absence of tyres - various improvised means: boards, poles, beams, rods, etc., When transport immobilization limbs need to record two joint (above and below the injury), and at fracture of the shoulder and hip - three major joint of the leg.
Constant immobilization is the most important healing factor, because thanks to commit in the correct position bone fragments fractures created favorable conditions for biological processes for the development of callus; for wounds of soft tissues immobilization helps them to heal, inflammatory processes, the earliest their remission.
After surgical interventions or reduction of fragments when for immobilization fractures of limbs apply motionless, more often plaster, bandages, fixing devices of different systems (devices, Gudushauri, Ilizarov and so on)and stretching (see).
Widely used permanent immobilization at diseases and damages of spine (cots / Cribs, corsets, and so on), suppurative processes (cellulitis brush, tendovaginitis, myositis, and so on). A plaster is used not only in hospitals, but in the outpatient practice: in fractures of the small bones of the wrist, the radial bone in a typical location, ankles, and so on, Bandages with impose the observance of the rules and techniques plaster technique (see). Incorrectly wrapped up in bandages, squeezing the tissue that can cause swelling, sore, and even gangrene limbs, and also lead to contractions (see).
In traumatology and orthopedics immobilization ensure, through various structures, introduced into the tissues and tie the ends of the bones (see Osteosynthesis). When these methods of restraint very soon you can start physiotherapy damaged limbs that prevents the development of muscular atrophy and contractures.
Medical assistants and nurses, which, as a rule, provide first aid to the victims, must own the technology of immobilization in perfection.
In each shop and health, in each clinic and ambulatory must supply a sufficient quantity of tyres.