The congenital and acquired immunity

Ask the person interested in medicine and consider themselves competent in these matters, that such immunity. You will answer that there is no need to ask such children's issues; after all, it is well known that the immune system is immunity to infectious, infectious diseases. Half a century ago, and even a quarter of a century ago, the answer would be correct. The first echelon of foreign proteins, protection against which revealed medicine, were pathogenic microbes. But over the past decade showed that the body meets in arms not only microbial proteinsthat fall in the interior of its environment, but also any other. When I started the transplantation of tissues, convinced that the body does not tolerate other proteins other than its own. He vehemently rejects all others - received not only from animals, but also from other people.
Here immunology squarely faced with genetics. Full genetic analogues can be only organisms identical twins, received from parents the same, identical hereditary code. The rest of the body rejects. The strength of the immune system, according to the figurative expression of modern experts, to solve the question I or don't I" and try to eliminate any alien protein. Today we understand that protection from harmful microbes is just one and, may be, not the main front of immunity. First of all it is directed against internal traitors, is a kind of internal Affairs in our body. In the body not as frequent changes of the genetic apparatus of the cell mutation; however, they do happen constantly. A million normal cells have a single mutant. If we consider that only in our body about 10 trillion cells, it should be admitted that the army traitors in every moment very impressive - about 10 million, Some of these traitors to acquire the ability to malignant reproduction. If the strength of the immune system operate properly, the tumor is not growing, the media her ruthlessly destroyed. Where the cancer is, you can think about that protection of the internal order was not up to par.
Formation in the course of evolution and all-round improvement of special protivosokowoe defense play a huge? role in the protection of the welfare of the body. The carrier protein life and maintaining the purity of their protein structure is the Holy duty of a living system. Alien protein, possessing and a number of related properties, would inevitably disturb the normal life of their own proteins of the body, sometimes grossly interfere (as does the cancer), in other cases - thin, treacherously. Protecting the inner purity of the body, protivosokova defense simultaneously protects us from the harmful microbes that penetrate from outside. Defense this raised in a living organism at the highest level, includes two types of protective forces.
On the one hand, there is the so-called innate immunity, bearing non-specific character, i.e. directed generally against any foreign protein. It is known that from the huge army of microbes, constantly falling into our body, only small parts able to cause a particular disease.
Moreover, one and the same disease people get sick in different ways: some hard, other easily, while others do not get sick. It is provided close protection mechanisms.
First, we have to guard army of phagocytes - first of all this includes some form of white blood cells (called neutrophils). They furiously attack the microbes and often win them. Secondly, in body fluids has a number of substances that kill microbes. For example, blood, tears, saliva contains lysozyme is a rather strong substance of this kind. Not randomly every clogging eyes tear up, and animals slizyvat the language of his wounds. In human saliva lysozyme small, so the damage from getting into the wound numerous microbes saliva will be more than the value of lysozyme. Thirdly, an important protective force, neutralizing the number of microbial toxins, is all the same, our laboratory is the liver; the first barrier - toxic - helps the next - antebellum. Power of innate immunity implement all the security service of internal order, they are ready to reflect any protein stranger.
On the other hand, has acquired immunity is amazing protection mechanism that arise during the life of this body and bearing a specific character, i.e. directed against one particular foreign protein. For these forces, there is no "non-I, for them there is a concrete "you".
Since ancient times people knew that survived smallpox, measles and some other diseases are no longer hurts them. Only 100 years ago, however, it became clear, this is intolerable. Immunity arising after the transfer of a specific disease, became known as acquired immunity. Its main feature is that he, as already mentioned, is directed against one particular microbe, and is therefore called specific. If the power of innate immunity beat of the germ, so to speak, cold arms, then acquired immunity pours him a barrage of fire; on the other microbes this does not apply, there's a hand to hand struggle continues. Specific immunity is acquired and after collision with other foreign proteins - not only microbial. What are the new security forces appear in the body in the result of the first fight with foreign protein?
The main character here are the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells, the function of which was a mystery to 60-ies of our century. Lymphocytes are the norm about a quarter of all leukocytes. In the adult human body contains all the account 1 trillion lymphocytes with a total mass of about one and a half kilograms. Lymphocytes provide for the acquisition of specific immunity to the new protein-stranger in two lines.
First, there are the lymphocytes, which are beginning to be attracted to this - and only this - microbe or even alien squirrel and destroy its own enzymes. These cells is called "killers" (from the English. to kill - to kill). Secondly, there is the lymphocytes, which are transformed in special cells, called plasma, and produce antibodies - special protective proteins, molecules which are connected with hostile protein and make it more accessible to phagocytes. Once having appeared, specific protective forces often continue into adulthood.