Immune mechanisms

The assumption that no single mechanism allergies to milk was expressed Vendel [108] in 1948, the Author pointed out rapidly and a delayed reaction to cow's milk in patients with idiosyncrasy to this product. In recent years, our knowledge of the immune mechanisms underlying food allergies, expanded, but many questions still remain unclear. Difficulties to some extent connected with the fact that circulating antibodies to cow milk proteins often have a completely healthy people and do not reveal a number of patients with symptoms, clearly fit into the picture Allergy to milk. In fact, this fact should not come as a surprise, since antibodies are protective in the body, if their number remains in the normal range, and the immune system in General is well balanced. According to modern concepts, the basis of food allergies and other forms of hypersensitivity, as a rule, is the imbalance of immune mechanisms. There is strong evidence in favor of the fact that most of immune reactions, including allergic, not due to any one of the immune mechanism.
The most accepted classification mechanisms allergies developed Gell and Coombs [109]; the authors identify four main types of reactions:
Type I. hypersensitivity anaphylactic or immediate type. The reaction of this type occurs as a result of interaction between the allergen or antigen and specific to it IgE antibody (or short-lived IgG) on the surface of mast cells and the subsequent release of chemical mediators that increase local blood flow, vascular permeability and stimulate the inflow of different cells to the site of reaction.
Type II. Cytotoxic, or cytolytic reaction. The reaction of this type antibodies (typically IgG or IgM classes) react with the antigen component cells. An antigen can be a part of the cell structure; it is also possible that an exogenous antigen or hapten adsorbed on the surface of cells. Binding and activation of complement, as a rule, participate in cytolytic tissue damage.
Type III. The reaction type of the phenomenon artusa, or immune complexes. Antigen (usually with its excess) reacts with a specific antibody (IgG or IgM), then linking to complement and education of circulating immune complexes. The last cause vasculitis, local inflammation and tissue damage. Released complement chemotactic factors stimulate the inflow to the site of reaction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which are partially destroyed and in turn release of proteolytic enzymes, causing further tissue damage.
Type IV. Hypersensitivity delayed-type, or the reaction of cellular immunity. Sensitized T lymphocytes migrate to the concentration of antigens and react with the cell-targeted or a micro-organism in which the antigen. At the same time T-cells release a variety reactive substances called lymphokines that contribute to the development of immune responses and are often involved in tissue damage.
At least 3 of these four types of reactions (I, II, IV), and possibly all of them can be in varying degrees, included in the mechanism of Allergy to milk.

  • Anaphylactic reactions
  • The reaction of immune complexes
  • The reaction of cellular immunity