Immunology tumors

The presence of antitumor immunity proved in strictly ecologicheskikh systems and even in the conditions of chemotherapy of tumors. The developed method of quantitative determination of tension antitumor immunity through vaccination groups immunized and control animals of different doses of tumor cells.
If there antitumor immunity to increased O. the immunized animals, requires a large dose of tumor cells than in animals of the control group. The greater the difference in the dose of tumoral cells, causing O. the immunized animals compared to that of the control, the harder antitumor immunity.
This method showed that the immunization of animals of the same genetic line tumor cells, killed in vitro-ray view, you can obtain a certain intensity of immunity to tumors caused by carcinogenic substances, viruses, plastic plates and other means. However, immunity to spontaneous O. and caused by the introduction of plates of plastics was weak. O. caused by one and the same carcinogen, have both General and individually specific immunogenic properties; spontaneous tumor was antigenic individually specific. A strong immune system turns against O. caused by viruses (polimi, SV-40, adenovirus, virus rous and viruses leukemia mice). In these cases, a single injection of adult animal virus creates a strong immunity against the implantation of a dose of cells Acting previously caused by this virus (the phenomenon of resistance Sjogren - Habla). Moreover, by introducing viruses into tumors non-viral nature, such as Acting, caused by carcinogenic substances, it is possible to artificially induce in them corresponding viral antigen transplant type and exposing it immunological - artificial "heterogenization tumor."
Specific immunity against solid tumors is, in all likelihood, the immune reaction of the delayed type, i.e. it is determined not by antibodies, and live lymphocytes. Passive transfer of immunity to a solid Acting from one animal to another until now could only be made alive immune lymphoid cells. The action of the immune cells in tumor immunity can be demonstrated in experiments in vitro: adding lymphocyte immune to this animal tumor cells that Acting in tissue cultures leads to their destruction.
Antibodies may play a known positive role in immunity to leukemia. In the course of growth of some experimental Acting find related specific antibodies, which may in the future can be used for diagnostic purposes. In most circumstances, the antibodies will not only protect, but, on the contrary, may enhance the growth of Acting, especially in lax ecologicheskikh conditions (reinforcing the phenomenon Casey - Kalissa). Therefore, numerous attempts to influence the growth of O. different antisera almost not given effect.
The development of antitumor immunity depends on the presence of the tumor cells corresponding to a specific antigen. Different serological methods (reaction of binding complement, reaction diffusion precipitation in gels, etc.,) it is established that in the process of malignancy occurs as the loss of the antigens, typical of normal cells ("antigenic simplification"), and the emergence of new antigens.
In the laboratory L. A. Zilber found that in hepatoma mice has a new antigen caught embryonic whey protein mouse. In normal liver cells of adult mouse synthesis of this protein is absent. Specific antigens detected in tumors of people (cancer of the stomach, colon, breast, and others). It also turned out that ambliopicheskim protein found in human hepatocellular cancer.
A special area is immunology myeloma, where O. consisting of plasma cells of different maturity, synthesize kind of globulins.
In the process of growth and privivok tumor specific antigen of tumor cells, as well as some of the antigens, typical of this tissue, can be lost under the action of immunological factors immunoselection tumor cells, contributing more and simplification of tumor cells is one of the elements of tumor progression.
At different stages of development of the doctrine of tumor immunity was made (are not really successful) attempts antitumor immunization of people. The most reasonable is immunization inactivated human cells remote him (autologous) Acting Weak antigenicity of tumor cells spontaneous Acting makes it necessary to seek new methods of strengthening antitumor immunity and development of the principle of artificial strengthening of antigenicity of tumor cells.