Eye diseases

The textbook is recommended for publication head. the eye diseases Department of the II Moscow medical Institute. N. I. Pirogov Professor Kovalevsky E. I.

The data given in this tutorial, revised in the light of modern achievements of science and practice in the field of ophthalmology. Special attention in the tutorial given to the question of the integrity of the organism, about the importance of eye in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Much attention is paid to practical skills, necessary for execution of doctor's appointments, and for first aid, especially trauma, glaucoma, diseases of the anterior eye and its appendages. Anatomical terms are presented in accordance with International anatomical nomenclature, the drugs are given in accordance with X GF USSR. In the tutorial made a separate reference information that will help the students to master the course of ophthalmology, but will be useful in their further work.
The textbook is written in accordance with a programme approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR and intended for students of medical schools.
In the textbook 99 Fig.

Table of contents

Chapter I. the Development of the vision and its anatomy
Basic information about the development of the organ of vision
Brief information on the anatomy of the eye of man
The eyeball
The blood supply and innervation eyes
Chapter II. The function of the organ of vision
Physiology of the visual act
Central vision
The colour sensation
Peripheral vision and methods of its research
Light sensation
Binocular vision
Chapter III. Refraction and accommodation
The definition of refraction subjective method
Selection of glasses
Clinic of refractive errors
Chapter IV. The study of the patient with diseases of the eye
Complaints, anamnesis
Methods of study of persons with diseases of the eye
Chapter V. the Device and equipment eye of the Cabinet and hospital
The device and equipment eye of the Cabinet
The device and equipment eye unit
Responsibilities of nurses eye unit
Preparing the patient for surgery and post-operative care
Chapter VI. The main principles and methods of treatment of eye diseases
General treatment
Local treatment
Physiotherapeutic methods in ophthalmology
Medicines used in ophthalmology
Binders and cauterizing substances
Funds which hamper the pupil (mitotic) and extend it (midriatichesky)
Mioticescimi means
Midriatichesky tools
Chapter VII. Diseases of the eyelids
Chapter VIII. Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus
Chapter IX. Disease of the conjunctiva. Trachoma
Etiology, during, clinic and diagnostics of trachoma
Treatment and prevention of trachoma. Organization of struggle with it
Allergic conjunctivitis
Degenerative changes
Chapter X. Diseases of the cornea and sclera
Diseases of cornea
Brief anatomical data
Common symptoms of corneal diseases
Ulcers of the cornea
Neurogenic (neiroallergicescoe) keratitis
Deep keratitis
Diseases of the sclera
Chapter XI. Diseases of the vascular tract
Chapter XII. Diseases of the eye lens and vitreous body
The lens and its diseases
Diseases of the vitreous body
Chapter XIII. Glaucoma
Currency vnutriglazna liquid
Classification of glaucoma
Diagnostics of glaucoma
The etiology and treatment of glaucoma
The role of nurses in the prevention of glaucoma
Chapter XIV. Diseases of the retina and optic nerve
Poor circulation in the retina
Retinal detachment
Diseases of the retina at some of the common diseases
Optic nerve disorders
Chapter XV. Diseases of the muscular apparatus and the orbit of the eye
Chapter XVI. Injuries of the organ of vision
Mechanical damage
Chemical and thermal damage
Damage to eyes radiant energy
Chapter XVII. Organization of eye care in the USSR

Approved by the Main Department of educational institutions of the Ministry of health of the USSR as a textbook for students of medical, obstetric and sanitary-medical departments of medical colleges.


In secondary medical schools presentation of the course of eye diseases divert relatively little time - they are referred to section so-called small medical disciplines. This provision can only be taken very, very conditional. Indeed, the eye takes about 0.15% of the whole surface of the human body. But such a superficial approach to the significance of ophthalmology completely wrong. The organ of vision plays an important role not only in the conscious life of man, but in the diagnosis of many diseases, which seem to have no relation to the eye.
The person perceives the external world through the five external senses - smell, touch, taste, hearing and vision. Touch and taste give people an idea of what it is in direct contact, to which it touches. Smell, and hear significantly expand the boundaries of the external world. With the help of the organ of vision in one sees.
Senses, even when taken together, can't replace the eye. It is known that about 70% of all the perceptions from the outside world a person gets through the eyes. That is why the loss of vision was always considered a very great misfortune for a man.
In light of the basic laws of the Marxist-Leninist dialectics on the relationship and interdependence of phenomena in nature and society, as well as the ensuing principle, formulated by I. P. Pavlov, about integrity and unity of the body, great importance eye examination in General medical practice and especially in pathology. At present in many common diseases (hypertension, toxemia of pregnancy, diabetes, and others) necessarily retinoscopy. Often opticians first diagnosed, for example, brain tumor, etc.
The study of eye diseases - discipline is very old. The study of eye disease called "ophthalmology" from the Greek word "Italmas" (eyes) and "logos" (study). Physicians who study and treating people with diseases of the eye, called the eye doctors. This word comes from the Latin "Oculus", which means the eye. These two terms are widely spread in modern medicine.
In pre-revolutionary Russia eye assistance to the population was not sufficient. But then were opticians, who have greatly contributed to the development of ophthalmology. So, in Kharkiv worked for many years Professor L. L. Gershman, Kazan very actively combat trachoma was led by Professor E. C. Adamuk and others.
The flourishing of Russian ophthalmology began after the great October socialist revolution. For 58 years of Soviet power the number of eye doctors increased to 18 000 and the number of nurses to 2 500 000. If half a century ago in Russia it was a matter of the number of medical faculties at universities, at the present time in the USSR a network of medical institutions, medical faculties at the universities and institutes for advanced training of physicians, learn and improve their skills doctors-ophthalmologists, has grown. Doctors-ophthalmologists are very many even district hospitals.
Many valuable in the fight against diseases made by Soviet scientists.
Acad. B. N. Filatov was the founder of the Institute of eye diseases and tissue therapy in Odessa. Widely known for his proposed tissue therapy (biogenic stimulators) method and all of the stem. Developed by B. N. Filatov way cadaveric transplantation of the cornea when Belm returned to work thousands of blind people.
A great contribution was made to prevent injuries eyes Acad. M. I. Averbakh. He was a permanent leader created the Moscow Institute of eye diseases named Helmholtz. Acad. Centuries time with him, worked first in Kazan, and then in Leningrad, has made significant progress in the fight against trachoma. Prominent ophthalmologist surgeon Professor S. S. Golovin made a great contribution in the fight against blindness. Selflessly worked at the periphery of the country's most prominent opticians Professor P. F. Arkhangelsk and X. K. Orlov (Rostov-on-don), C. C. Prof (Krasnodar, Russia), A. I. Pokrovsky (Voronezh, Russia), A. N. Murzin (Kazan) and other
Well-deserved reputation enjoyed by the Hero of Socialist Labour, Acad. THE ACADEMY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES OF THE USSR NV. A. Puchkovskaya (Odessa), corresponding members of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR M. M. Krasnov (Moscow), I. I. Eroshevsky (, Kuibyshev) and I. I. Merkulov (Kharkiv, Ukraine)and Professor A. I. Samoilov (Moscow), M. L. Krasnov (Moscow), N. I. Medvedev (Samarkand), S. F. Kalfa (Odessa, Ukraine), A. P. Nesterov (Moscow), I. Century Slopak (Kiev), B. E. Shevelev (Kiev), E. S. Avetisov, E. I. Kovalevsky (Moscow) and many others. They do a lot of medical and scientific work.
In the Soviet Union completely eradicated smallpox, but before the revolution after the disease has remained around 10% of the blind. Almost everywhere liquidated trachoma. It should be noted that the elimination of trachoma as a mass disease great role was played by medical assistants and nurses. Among the causes of blindness in old Russia trachoma stood on the first place.
Mandatory prevention gonebingo on Matveyev in newborns has also made it possible to completely eliminate a serious disease of the eye, which occupied the first place among the causes of blindness in children.
In the preventive health work has sharply decreased eye injuries among the workers, although in absolute numbers it still remains high. Systematic preventive medical examinations allow students to identify their eye refraction abnormalities, and timely taken measures give an opportunity in most cases, prevent the development of serious eye diseases. In all these activities a great and honorable role of nursing staff.
Nurses - feldshers, midwives, nurses much more than doctors. They work mainly among the broad masses of the population, so it is difficult to overestimate the importance of this category of doctors, especially in the case of health education and first aid. Nurses should know about the organization of eye care to the population, to be able to recognize the most common eye diseases, the diagnosis of diseases such as glaucoma, cataract, iritis, and others, to give first aid for injuries, accidents, acute diseases, and to independent medical posts and health centers to provide medical care to people with eye diseases. Nurses and medical assistants need to know when and where, if necessary, to send such a person.