Plant phenols and human health

In section comprehensively the regularities and mechanisms of the biological effect of phenolic compounds - a large group of organic substances that are widespread in the plant world. Performing along with proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and other essential functions in plant cells and tissues, phenols in the composition of food products, as well as a variety of medicines folk and modern medicine enter the human body and have a measurable impact on the work of the various bodies.
Designed for physicians, biologists and biochemists.

Contents

  • Vitamin R - facts and hypotheses
  • Vitamin permeability?
  • The problem of vitamin P today
  • Phenolic compounds structure and properties
  • Carbon skeleton and classification of phenols
  • Phenolic hydroxyl group and antioxidant activity
  • The role reversible oxidation mechanism of biological action of phenols
  • Phenols in the plant world
  • Participation in metabolism
  • Phenols and plant growth
  • Passive protection and active immunity
  • Phenols - coloring matter of plants
  • Phenols and processing of plant raw materials
  • Phenols plants in animals and humans
  • Phenols in the Arsenal of medicine, folk and modern
  • Phenols and heart
  • The blood circulation and vascular tone with the introduction of phenols
  • The impact of phenols function of stomach, intestines, liver
  • Water-salt metabolism and phenolic compounds
  • Biological activity and toxicity of plant phenols
  • Phenols as medicines
    Familiarity with the basic physiological manifestations and pharmacodynamic activity of plant phenols convincingly showed that many of them have great prospects of use in the treatment and prevention of human diseases.
  • Against inflammation, sclerosis and allergies
  • "For sunbathing and sun"
  • Blood coagulation under control
  • Radiation, phenols and man
  • Phenols in tumour disease
  • The present and the future of phenolic drugs

  • How do phenols?
  • Broker - ascorbic acid
  • Broker - adrenaline
  • Phenols in the exchange of acetylcholine
  • Action phenols on the endocrine glands
  • The impact on the exchange of oxygen
  • Conclusion
  • Application
    Literature

    The main classes of organic compounds: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, fats, and also the necessary for life of mineral salts and trace elements are studied deeply and comprehensively. Hundreds of thousands of pages of painstaking observations, countless experiments, hopes and disappointments of thousands of researchers, disputes and discussions, mistakes and discoveries - that is hidden behind concise lines of biochemistry textbooks.
    Proteins are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur, really perform major life functions. They form together with a fat-like substances (lipids) biological membranes - core structures, one of which was built cells. Proteins-enzymes - main engines, catalysts metabolism is vital process. Protein hormones are the means of regulation and management in the machine life. There are in the body of contractile proteins, they work in skeletal muscle, operate lint, promotion of food clumps along the digestive tract; transport proteins, they carry on the surface of their huge molecules many vital substances; proteins-antibodies - tiny defenders of our inner world from the encroachments of the invisible enemies of bacteria and viruses. There is no form of life, such a biological process in which proteins would not play a primary role.
    Nucleic acids, found for the first time in the structure of the cell nucleus, became known later, proteins, and their function in the body is installed in full measure only in the last decade. It is closely associated with the role of proteins. Large molecules of nucleic acids (the largest of them consist of hundreds of thousands and even millions of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) are stored in its long filaments, in the sequence of their nuclear groups inherited memory cells, the information about the structure and the production of proteins.
    Carbohydrates and fats are arranged much easier, and their role in the body are less diverse. Burning in tissues in the slow process of biological oxidation, they give their energy to maintain the temperature of the living body, the implementation processes of biosynthesis necessary organic compounds. Fats and fat-like substance are included, along with proteins in the structure of biological membranes, the surface of which flow all the essential life processes. Carbohydrates (they are so named because constructed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with the latter two items are contained in them in the same proportion as in the water 2:1), especially large molecules polysaccharides, play the role of energy stores (starch, glycogen). Some, such as cellulose, are part of the shell plant cells, form fibers, serve as an important reference material in plant tissues.
    The structure and the vital role of vitamins, their very existence became known only in the XX century the Need for them is small, but they are necessary: in their absence or lack of people seriously ill and can even die from scurvy or pellagra, Beri-Beri or rickets. Entering the body with meal, vitamins are always present in body fluids unchanged or suffering of metabolic activation. For example, vitamin B1 is converted in the body into kocarboksilazu (thiamine diphosphate), with the maximal activity.
    Water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, PP, H, folic (Su) and Pantothenic (B3) acids play a role in the body of coenzymes. This is sort of a set of tools with which enzyme proteins carry out their catalytic functions: cut or connect molecules carry a group of atoms from molecules of one substance to another, accelerate the flow of certain metabolic reactions.
    Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) are components of biological membranes - the main structural element of the cells. Are the membranes made of double-layer lipid (fat-like molecules, lipid "sea"in which "swim", like icebergs, protein particles. Membrane split the cell into compartments that perform different functions; transfer of molecules, ions, electric charges, basic reactions of metabolism. Fat-soluble vitamins stabilize the structure of membranes, protect them from oxidative destruction, ensure the normal operation of membrane enzymes.
    Apart is the vitamin C; soluble in body fluids, but coenzyme function, apparently, is not. As fat-soluble vitamins, it possesses antioxidant activity, but is not part of the membranes, and in the composition of biological fluids of the body washes their surface.
    By the middle of the XX century is the time of great discoveries in the study of the chemical composition and structure of organic substances, it seemed, had passed. Biochemists rushed in pursuit of the microelements of substances present in living tissues in vanishingly small quantities, studying their role as cofactors enzymatic catalysis, accelerators or retarders of the reactions of metabolism.
    But there is a large and diverse class of organic compounds, biological role of which has not yet been clarified. It phenolic compounds. About them and will be discussed in the book.
    Many of them, these substances. They meet every plant, in every cell of their body, roots, leaves, fruits and bark - wherever they are looking for scientists. From plants allocated several thousand phenols, and the list continues to grow. The share of phenolic compounds have to 2-3% of the mass of plant organic substances, and in some cases - up to 10% and even more. Of course, such widespread and numerous organic matter should do some important, essential vital functions.
    We cannot say that about the role of phenolic compounds of plants is not known. Studies in this area are more than 100 years, and in the last decade, a particularly large. But very soon it turned out strange circumstance. Proteins and nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids contained in the tissues of both plants and animals, are about the same or close relations. They are built according to a single plan, consist of the same source elements, amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, simple sugars). In the digestive tract herbivores vegetable food is broken down to such a generic simple components that are part of their own organic compounds of these animals, and then and carnivorous. Moreover, one can trace the fate of the same substances throughout the biological chain, from plants to animals and humans, and functions of these substances in different parts of the chain in different types, classes and types of organisms are about the same or even similar.
    Completely different is the situation with phenolic compounds. With abundance and diversity in the plant world is in sharp contrast presence in the tissues of animals and humans only a few representatives of phenolic "Kingdom"contained moreover, in very small, even insignificant amounts. And despite the similarity in chemical structure of plant and animal phenols, nobody has managed safely and reliably to prove that they have the same continuity as between vegetable and animal proteins or carbohydrates. Attempts to trace (using the method of tagged atoms or other modern scientific methods) over the fate of phenolic compounds of plant foods in animals and humans give the same result: the bulk of plant phenols burns in the body of animals to carbon dioxide and water, like behave carbohydrates or fats.
    But whether the role of carbohydrates pure energy, or some part of them are still used in the biosynthesis of animals phenols? A definitive answer to this question yet.
    What is the function of plant phenols in animals and humans, where they constantly comes to food? Let us try to answer this question in the pages section.