Starting point - the nephron

This section is for those who want to know, based on health. It teaches you not a little about everything, but everything - or almost everything - about the same level - about the kidneys. Opened the technology of their activities upon which depends the well-being of the whole body, and mechanism of disease. Named the factors of daily life and habits that are not held for the kidneys without a trace, explained the methods of examination and treatment guidelines.
Section written in a lively, free manner. In his creation involves the experience of one of the leading Soviet urologists academician of medicine, laureate of the State prize of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labor N. A. Lopatkin and labour journalist popularized medical knowledge I.e. Norcini.
There, where the blood is filtered.
What is good and what is evil
How many duties at the kidney?
When the disease waits.
Mobility and peace.

Fashion and diet.

In an emergency situation

Behind the door, we're going to open,- Department of artificial kidney. This little unsightly building has thapathali for him clinic of urology and operative Nephrology of the II Moscow medical Institute named after N. I. Pirogov. Artificial kidney is the first in our country - came here, into operation on March 4, 1958. Now many tens in different cities, but what happened then, deep, even in the winter cold at night, do not forget, perhaps, none of the doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, who appeared on call in the operating for the sake of a young woman dying from the consequences of abortion.
For the first time in the practice of Soviet medicine patient's blood cleansed his own kidney, and the apparatus, imitating their activities. Not living tissue with her biological ordinances, metallurgical products, machinery - design, working on the laws of physics and chemistry. The first therapeutic use of artificial kidney was preceded by countless experiments, estimating, training. Because of this, and decided that everything was tested.
How was the idea of the artificial kidney? From noticed doctors downright fantastic ability nephrons - production of the cells of the kidneys is to restore its functionality after the hardest tests. It seems that it's over. Poisoning, infection them completely paralyzed, no trace of their physiological functions, but are passing day, second, third, fifth, and, sometimes, they come alive. Weak, insecure, but start working again. This happy resurrection happens not often. The body, as a rule, can not do without kidney as much time as you want to nephrons for self-healing. But it sometimes happens! So we must seek, to experiment!
And the scientists searched, tried. Finally came across a semi-permeable materials that can serve as a border between the blood and any solution and at the same time not hinder their interchange. This is the basis of hemodialysis - purification of the blood, the separation from it of harmful products.
In 1912, the American doctors Yu Abel, L. Country, B. Tour applied constructed their apparatus with the membranes. Experimental dogs poisoned salicylic drugs and then their blood ran through the machine. For 112 hours managed to extract from the blood of 20 grams of residual nitrogen - last harmful fraction of protein metabolism that accumulates in the blood as a result of inactivity of the kidneys.
The results of the first experiments were more than modest, but they proved the principal possibility to construct an artificial kidney. In these experiments it was born.
In today's artificial kidney on one side of the plastic partitions blood flows, on the other dialysis (separating, purifying) solution. Through cellophane is diffusion - leaks water and substances contained in it. But not all, only the smallest, is able to pass through the eye of a needle semi-permeable membrane. Therefore it is called a semi-permeable. Movement can occur in both directions and stops when on both sides of cellophane is the same concentration of substances, overcoming this barrier.
Diffusion can be managed. In the blood accumulated waste products of protein metabolism? If dialysis solution they will not, they will start there to flow from the blood, and it is cleared. Also entice poisons. But you can enrich blood substances, which she poorer result in kidney failure. To do this, they saturate the solution that come with blood in return. For example, the normal concentration of sodium and potassium are able to restore an hour.
After the first encouraging experiments it took 30 years of persistent searches, while the Dutch Clinician Century Caffu with X. the Verk managed to create a model suitable for therapeutic purposes. Have been proposed, and many other structures, improvements, new materials have appeared. The apparatus has become more compact, easier to use, safer, more efficient, were all more reliable, more widely used and successful.

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