Head

The border that separates the head from the neck, is the lower edge of the lower jaw to her corner, then on the line connecting the angle of the jaw with the top of the mastoid process, and further along the top nuchal line up outside the occiput.
The skull is connected with the spine Atlanto-occipital joint, causing movement of the head. When the so-called normal position of the head where the lowest point of the orbit and the topmost point of the external ear canal are on the same straight, anterior nasal spine is located at the level of the Atlanto-occipital joint, and the chin body IV cervical vertebra.
On the head allocate brain and facial departments. The border between them is carried out by verchneluzickogo edge, cheekbones and zygomatic arch up to the ear.
Skull bone vary in size, structure and form. At neonatal skull bones are thin, and with age, they thicken. This thickening is from external and internal compact plates between which gradually accumulates a layer of sponge-like substances. In some parts of the skull bones instead of the spongy substance has cavity lined with mucous membrane and communicating with the external environment (frontal and basic sinus, sinus upper jaw, pneumatic ethmoid cells and mastoid). Sinus and cells extremely variabilni in its form and size, and sometimes can even be absent. Pneumatic sinuses are located near the nasal cavity and communicated with her, because of what they called okolonosovykh sinuses (sinus paranasales). By the time of birth of a pneumatic sinus still missing, except the axils of the upper jaw. Frontal sinuses in 13% of cases do not develop at all.
In the cranial bones areas of dense bone are uneven. On the vault of the skull, they are placed in vertical columns. Front and rear pillars are along the middle line on the scales of the frontal and occipital bone. Anterolateral post comes down on the side of the scales of the frontal bone, the zygomatic bone in the front part of the temporal lobe of the pit. Posterolateral post comes from parietal tuber to zadaniyam corner of the parietal bone and the mastoid. In the intervals between these areas, bone thinner, weaker, as it consists of a thin layer of compact matter. Areas of dense bone tissue can be traced on the base of the skull; such areas are located on the middle line on the front and back of the skull holes along the side, along the small and large wing of the sphenoid bone, along the petrous part of the temporal bone. In the intervals between these areas, bone thinner and weaker, that on the base of the skull is exacerbated by the presence of numerous holes. In such difference bones of the skull can be seen easily when considered in the light, for example from domestic foundations. Well seen through the upper section of the orbit, a considerable portion of the lower half of the squamous part of the temporal bone, a small area respectively temporomandibular hole and the deepest part of the posterior cranial fossa within the lateral parts of the occipital bone, where it can be detected even holes with uneven edges. The translucent all these sites, due to the peculiarities of bone tissue structure, consisting of only one thin layer of compact matter. This is of practical importance; for example, it is possible violation of the integrity of the temporomandibular holes in the fall (or impact) on the chin when articular process of the mandible penetrates into the middle cranial fossa. Fractures and fractures of the skull bones are often found in less dense areas of the bone tissue.
Paired jaw and cheekbones are mainly determined by the shape of the face. These bones with frontal, wedge-shaped, lattice and small bones of the face form the wall of the nasal cavity cavity of the eye socket, the upper and side walls of the mouth cavity.
Through pair temporomandibular joint (art. temporoman-dibularis) lower jaw is connected with the base of the skull. Temporomandibular joint is formed by the head of the lower jaw, jaw hole and articulate tubercle temporal bone. The joint share interarticular cartilage two are not communicating with one another Department. Joint capsule is attached at the bottom at the level of cervix of the articular bone of the lower jaw. She strengthened by ligaments coming from the temporal and the sphenoid bone, pterygium and subulate processes. In the anterior it is thinner than in the back, more freely adapted to the head of the lower jaw, which leads to more frequent breaks her during insertion and offset articular head to the front.
Brain skull formed eight bones: two steam rooms (temporal and parietal) and four unpaired (frontal, lattice, wedge and occipital). Skull bones are connected together by means of joints, variously expressed, depending on the age and individual characteristics, form a cavity of a skull, a narrower front and wide in the rear. In the bone cavities of the skeleton of the head are the brain and the senses. In addition, the bones of the skull are the backbone of the primary divisions of the respiratory and digestive systems.
Brain skull is divided into upper, convex part of the cranial vault (fornix cranii) and the lower part of the skull base (basis cranii). The border between them is carried out by nosolobnogo seam, verchneluzickogo edge, top edge of the zygomatic arch (the latter is crista in-fratemporalis sphenoid bone), the basis of the mastoid process and further along the upper nuchal line up outside the occiput. This line roughly corresponds to the projection of the lower edge of the big hemispheres of a brain on the outer skin of the skull.

The base of the skull
The vault of the skull
Inspection and palpation
Projection of seams and joints joints
Projection neurovascular formations
Peculiarities of the structure of the soft tissues of the cranial vault
Fronto-parietal-occipital region
The temporal area
The area of the mastoid process
intracranial education
Traumatic brain topography
Preparation of intracranial formations

Overview brain
Face
Inspection and palpation

Projection neurovascular structures on the surface of the face
The side face
Dissection of the buccal and parotid chewing areas
Preparation of the parotid gland
Dissection of the deep areas of the face
the area of the eye socket
Inspection and palpation
Dissection of the century
Dissection of the lachrymal channel
Dissection of the eye
the nose
Inspection and palpation
Preparation of the side wall of the nose
Dissection of the nasal cavity
Paranasal cavity of the nose
the topography of the organ of hearing
The outer ear
Middle ear
Inner ear
the mouth area
Preparation of the lips
Submucosal dissection formations vestibule of mouth
Preparation of hard and soft palate
Dissection of the lower wall of the cavity of the mouth