- Primary and secondary prevention
- Physical methods of prevention of certain diseases of the heart and vessels
- Is it possible to prevent diseases of joints and spine?
- Gout and its prevention
- What you need to know about rehabilitation
- How to preserve the effect of secondary prevention
Physical methods of treatment, and prevention increasingly used by prescription. Physical methods operate on an organism of the patient, how to use them properly in order to prevent various diseases and prevent their escalation, described in the section.
The section is intended for a wide circle of readers.
In the century of scientific and technical revolution, people understand that prevention, i.e. the prevention of diseases, is a powerful tool for health. But not so easy to find reasons underlying the disease and to establish effective measures, with which could to prevent them. These complex theoretical and practical issues grow into a problem, which has always been, is and will be very difficult, as it is inexhaustible as inexhaustible in their knowledge of life itself.
Many doctors until recently believed that the discovery of the causes of the etiology of the disease is quite enough for the application of medical measures to combat disease. But science is now known that the knowledge of the etiology of various diseases have not grant a sufficient understanding of their development (pathogenesis). Action preventive measures can be effective only when they are pathogenetic orientation.
Therefore, prevention, in a General sense, based not only on finding etiology, but also on the disclosure of the pathogenesis of determining, in essence, features of development of each disease. It should be noted that preventive trend in modern medicine has its theoretical and practical aspects.
Currently, medical scientists distinguish primary and secondary prevention, each of which pursues a specific goal and has certain direction. Primary prevention implies the prevention of the emergence and development of the disease. For its implementation it is necessary to eliminate immediate causes, but also to facilitate the normal functioning of a person since the early childhood, increase resistance of his body and to eliminate the adverse conditions of work and life. This requires major social measures (improvement of the external environment and the working environment, provide good housing, improvement of social-hygienic measures, hygiene education and comprehensive development)aimed at strengthening of health and increase the life expectancy of people.
Secondary prevention involves the possibility of preventing exacerbations of chronic diseases that contribute to the reduction of ability to work, the appearance of premature disability. To address the serious consequences of the disease every person should strengthen their health, rational use recommended by a physician measures to prevent the onset and progression of diseases, first of all those who received the name of the diseases of modern civilization.
However, in order to know the essence of these diseases, you must have specific views on the causes and mechanisms of their development. This will help to rationally use prevention methods, including physical nature.
The Minister of health of the USSR S. P. a Burenkov at the session of Academy of medical Sciences 9 April 1981, said: "the Decisions of the XXVI Congress of the CPSU oblige us to do a big work on radical improvement of the work of polyclinics, dispensaries, clinics and other institutions of primary health care... we Need to change the approach to the solution of issues associated with rising levels of preventive, diagnostic and curative work at clinics". This means that it is necessary to increase the level of primary and secondary prevention, to determine the earliest forms of the diseases and apply effective treatment and preventive measures that would prevent the development of various diseases, if I may say so, even in the "embryo".
Without affecting social prevention, which has a huge General biological and socio-economic importance, it must be emphasized that medical measures play an important role not only for primary and secondary prevention.
Of medical preventive measures, have physical, natural and transformed factors. This is especially important for those patients who often prescribe medications cease sometimes be of high therapeutic and prophylactic effect.
The Commonwealth of physicians with the broad masses of the population is key for improving the health of people and improvement of their working capacity.
Prevention (from the Greek. prophylaktikos - safety - the set of preventive health measures for the protection and strengthening of health of the individual or the whole team. Depending on this, there are prevention of individual (personal) and public (social). At different stages of historical development of prevention took different forms depending on the class structure of society, the level of cultural development, the prevailing habits and customs, religious beliefs, extent of development of science.
In modern capitalist States the scope and character of preventive actions are dictated primarily by the interests of the ruling class.
Under the pressure of the revolutionary movement and for the conservation of the labour force for most of its operation the bourgeois state has to take some measures for the protection of labour and social insurance.
Bourgeois scholars, advocates of the ideologists of the bourgeois regime, seeking to justify a negative attitude to mass social-preventive activities, preach pseudoscientific theories about alleged hereditary genetic predetermination high incidence of workers about the dangers of social and preventive measures, if survival "biologically inferior" groups about "appropriateness" to be guided in health principles "laissez-faire", "personal freedom", i.e. individual care each about their health. The same are social Darwinism, eugenics, Freudianism, psychosomatics, human ecology and other theories aimed at biologicaly social phenomena. Various bourgeois reformist theory of health aim to show that through reforms can provide the necessary protection of the health of workers and the conditions of capitalism. In contrast to these statements 3. P. Solovyov said that medicine in capitalist countries cannot enter the wide public of prevention, without encroaching on the very foundations of the capitalist system.
Public prevention in the USSR - integrated system of state and public socio-economic and health interventions aimed at preventing the emergence and spread of diseases and strengthening of health of the population. Successful socialist construction is the basis of social prevention in the USSR. The performance of the tasks of prevention in the USSR not only the work of bodies and institutions of health, but also part of the activities of all bodies of state power and governance, economic bodies and public organizations.
Prevention we, in the words of N. A. Semashko, should not be understood narrowly as a departmental task of the health authorities, as broadly and deeply as concern of the Soviet state on strengthening health of the Soviet people.
The Soviet government created all the prerequisites for carrying out necessary preventive measures for health protection of the population in compliance with all of its social policy in the interests of the working people.
Decrees on earth, peace, social insurance, the first code of laws on work suggests that the Soviet state since the first years of its existence entered the broad path of social prevention. C. I. Lenin in their activities and paid great attention to questions of social prevention. In the program of the party, adopted by the eighth party Congress in March 1919, was declared a preventive direction of the Soviet health: "the basis of its activities in the field of protection of the public health PSC believes first of all a wide sanitary and health measures for preventing the development of diseases...". And in the further expansion and strengthening of preventive measures in the system of Soviet health care was given to decisions of the congresses and conferences of the Communist party and plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU. In the Program of the CPSU adopted XXII Congress of the party, provide for the implementation of a wide system of socio-economic and medical measures aimed at the protection and continuous improvement of health of the population. In the center of attention there are the problems of prophylaxis of diseases: "will be a broad program aimed at preventing and drastic reduction of diseases, liquidation of mass infectious diseases, further increasing life expectancy". The same goals mentioned in the Program measures on satisfaction of vital needs of the population. The USSR Constitution ensures every citizen the right to work (article 118), leisure (article 119), material security in old age and in case of illness and disability (article 120); in addition, the measures of state protection of the rights of women and children (see Protection of motherhood and childhood) - all this is of great preventive importance. Preventive nature is all Soviet social legislation, including legislation on health. Powerful factors of prevention are huge from year to year increasing of housing and communal construction, significantly improving the nutrition of the population, the growth of wages, pensions, a reduction of working hours, paid at the time of illness, timely provision of free treatment, healthy rest, wide use of sanatoriums, rest houses, sports institutions.
In the USSR, where the economic law of socialism, aimed at the maximum satisfaction of the constantly growing material and cultural needs of the whole society, all over the socialist economic and cultural development take into account the requirements of prevention. All the major issues of economic construction in our country are resolved, in connection with problems of health protection of the population, keeping it safe from possible harmful effects of the environment with regard to the requirements of hygiene. An important place in the Soviet prevention takes hygiene norms, more encompassing all branches of production, technological processes, the environment, working conditions, training, nourishment, leisure. This contributes to the implementation of the main tasks of prevention in the USSR : health and disability, to the harmonious development of physical and spiritual forces of the Soviet man. It affects the unity of the socio-economic and preventive purposes. In the USSR, much research has been conducted on the scientific substantiation of hygienic standards in different areas of national economy, and the results of this work in the area of occupational hygiene, communal hygiene, food hygiene and school health are very high. Mandatory compliance with the norms set by current legislation.
The progress of technology entails the success in prevention. Improvement of industrial technologies leads to a significant reduction of harmful substances in the environment. In connection with automation and mechanization of production, with a sharp reduction of manual processes, with significant use of electronics, nuclear physics, chemistry, Cybernetics, computing devices, remote methods of production management great preventive importance widely conducted in the USSR scientific development issues physiology, hygiene in the new conditions, mode of work and rest in connection with the tasks of the scientific organization of labor. In the resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers dated January 14, 1960 "on measures for further improvement of medical care and health protection of the population of the USSR" much attention is paid to prevention. Closely connected with problems of prevention of the law on nature protection in the USSR, adopted on 27 October 1960 Especially important Art. 12 of this law, devoted to questions of sanitary protection of nature, including atmospheric air, surface and ground water, soil. This law the responsibility of ministries, agencies, economic entities during the design of enterprises and structures to develop and implement processes for maximum processing of raw materials and fuel, not giving harmful wastes into the atmosphere, water and soil. Broad activities carried out in the USSR to transform nature (forests, draining of wetlands, development of deserts, fixing sand, water works and so on), lead to the improvement of living conditions of the population and therefore also have a preventive value. The Soviet system of health prevention allocated leading place.
The whole system and the activity of health care institutions is built so that in the corresponding its links are taken into account the specific tasks of prevention, dictated by the peculiarities of the age and sex population groups, conditions of their life, the nature of their illness and its etiology (preventive work of children's and women's consultation clinics, polyclinics, dispensaries, health centers, industrial enterprises, teen offices and so on).
In preventive activities plays a significant role helpful and current sanitary supervision carried out by the state sanitary Inspectorate. Them, according to the "Regulation on state sanitary supervision of the USSR", granted extensive rights to ensure strict control over the observance of all the established sanitary norms, rules and requirements (see health legislation).
Especially important sanitary supervision in the planning and accomplishment of settlements; he must control housing, health protection of water, air and soil, labor protection etc.,
The success of hygienic science and the activities of a powerful network of sanitary-epidemiological institutions, health departments and departments of epidemiology of the medical institutions and institutes of advanced training of doctors play an important role in the development of preventive direction of Soviet medicine. Preventive health care is also a characteristic feature of development of all clinical disciplines in the USSR, in which due attention is paid to issues of social etiology (employment and domestic factors), early detection of diseases, taking measures for the improvement of the patient protection, rational employment, strengthening of the body (physiotherapy, health food, and so on) and the increase of its adaptive capacity.
Prevention is organically linked with the curative activities. Many outstanding Russian clinicians appreciated prevention and recognized the need for a combination of treatment with preventive activities (see Medicine). In the USSR treatment is not opposed to the prevention and merges in the inseparable unity, which found the most vivid expression in the dispensary method of preventive and curative services.
The doctors, carrying out the synthesis of treatment and prevention, seek the early diagnosis, proper treatment of patients, the necessary conditions and regime of work, rest, nutrition, prevent the recurrence of the disease. Of these problems arise and responsibilities of the attending physician to get acquainted with the social causation of disease, especially with the conditions of work and life of access of patients and to contribute through relevant organizations to improve these conditions. All this should be reflected in the records.
Of great importance in the prevention is the implementation of the doctors of the periodic monitoring of distant results of treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, sanatorium treatment), appropriate use of preventive hospitalization, timely referral to preventoria, rest homes, sanatoriums, the purpose of the diet, rational employment in accordance with the state of health. Great value for disease prevention has a medical examination healthy populations carried out in a planned manner [children, teenagers, pregnant women and mothers, workers of the leading departments and professions and engaged in work with occupational hazards (see clinical examination)].
In the Arsenal of the means of prevention powerful weapon is health education (see), which allows to prevent the occurrence of many diseases. "Without health education there is no prevention" (N. A. Semashko).
To critical prevention and are widespread in the USSR preventive examinations of workers and the resulting preventive and health-improving measures against individual workers and entire communities. Important for further development of the preventive direction of Soviet medicine has specifying Program of the CPSU that "...medical science should focus on the opening of the means of preventing and fighting diseases such as cancer, viral, cardiovascular, and other dangerous to human life diseases".
The role of prevention in the fight against infectious diseases. In the prevention of infectious diseases are widely used achievements of domestic epidemiology and Microbiology, immunology, especially in the study of the pathogenesis of infection, immunity and the problem of variability of microbes, early microbiological diagnostics, specific issues of prevention, prophylaxis and treatment of infectious diseases. The role of prevention in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases; elimination of harmful influence of factors associated with adverse labour and living conditions, leading to a reduction in the number of cardiovascular diseases. In the activity of the doctor figure prominently psychoprophylaxis, mental hygiene.
Principles of prevention laid as a basis for tuberculosis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, urogenital organs, diseases of the nervous system, malignant neoplasms and other Invaluable preventive measures ensuring proper physical development of the younger generations. Here on the foreground there is physical education, which is a powerful means of preserving and strengthening health of people of all ages. In the USSR created a powerful network of sports institutions and conducted mass work among the population by involving physical exercise. Successful prevention activities contributed to the widespread public Amateur performance at enterprises, in institutions, at the condominiums, in collective farms, state farms, mass popular movement for sanitary culture, for the cleanliness in the cities and rural areas, "health days", the activities of numerous health committees, health posts, public sanitary authorized.
In the development of theoretical bases of prevention and practical modalities for their implementation in the medical service of the population in different medical institutions large contribution of social hygiene (see) and public health organization, taught in medical schools arms doctors necessary knowledge. Preventive elements included in the teaching of all basic medical disciplines. Preventive orientation is characteristic of the research work of research institutes, faculties of medical institutes and institutes of advanced training of doctors. Wide development of preventive direction in the activities of medical institutions on the background of the steady improvement of the material and cultural well-being of the Soviet people, the development of medical science, improve the quality of health services has played a crucial role in reducing the incidence, the elimination of a number of infectious diseases, a sharp reduction in child mortality and a significant extension of the average length of life of a Soviet man. Soviet prevention has great international significance - its principles, forms and methods of implementation have received wide recognition in the countries of the socialist people's democracy in other countries. Cm. Health care also.