In section tells about medicinal plants - their habitats and healing properties, rules of collection and storage. You will learn how to protect these plants, what role they play in human life.
The list of the most important wild and cultivated medicinal plants
Medicinal plants - large group of plants used in medical and veterinary practice with various kinds of diseases for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. The healing properties of medicinal plants due to the presence of certain chemical compounds - the so-called active ingredients.
Medicinal plants used in the form of fees or teas, powders and other or after processing (see Galanova drugs, the Drug form). A special group of medicines prepared from medicinal plants for chemical and pharmaceutical plants, are products of their primary processing (fatty and essential oils, resins and other, net (without admixture of ballast substances) of the amount of active substances, individual chemicals and their combinations. Active substances are distributed in medicinal plants unevenly. Usually used only those parts of the plant, where it accumulates the maximum number of active substances. The composition and quantity of active ingredients in herbs changes during the year, with the age of the plant and depending on the conditions of their habitats, temperature, light, humidity of air, soil conditions and other Many medicinal plants are of only historical interest, as currently in medicine are not used.
The nomenclature of medicinal plants, allowed for use in medical practice, contains about 160 titles. Drugs or raw materials 103 of these plants described in the tenth edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (GFH). Requests for raw materials medicinal plants by about half tonnage and about 75% of the item's are satisfied by gathering wild plants, and the rest - at the expense of cultivated medicinal plants.
Also given morphological description an annual medicinal plants, introduction in the Botanical garden of Academy of Sciences of Kirghiz SSR, given the content of biologically active substances, described the vitality of the plants in the new conditions and considers some of the issues of agrotechnics of cultivation.
Recently, interest has grown in the herbal treatment, which in turn has increased the number of collectors. However, to use the medicinal plants, not knowing their properties and chemical composition, it is impossible. Many medicinal plants, their distribution and use described in the popular press. Chemical composition, ways of obtaining certain biologically active substances from plants considered in the scientific work. Despite the abundance of well-known medicinal herbs, opens up new, which are the primary test in Botanical gardens and testing stations. Botanical gardens located in different climatic zones of the globe, have a collection of some medicinal plants for the study of biological characteristics of the medicinal properties and methods of cultivation of these herbs. Thanks to this industry are introduced all new kinds of medicinal plants. Seeds are the basic material for exchange with other Botanic gardens and other organizations. Similar work is carried out in Botanical garden of Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyz SSR.
The section contains some information about annual medicinal plants grown on pilot plot, the data on some well-known plants, but for some reason forgotten. Most plants synthesize useful substances in the top mass - in the grass (camomile, series, zmeegolov, dymjanki), many types of value are seeds, fruits (coriander, anise, dopes, flax, soporific poppy, plantain and other). Some medicinal plants are the properties of the flowers (calendula officinalis, cornflower blue, and others).
Our research shows that many of introduced plants do not change the chemical composition, often and quantitative content of the active substance is not inferior to the content in the wild. Study of chemical composition of medicinal plants was carried out together with the laboratory of pharmacology of the Institute of physiology and experimental pathology highlands and the laboratory of natural compounds of the Institute of organic chemistry.
All the plants are divided into two groups: 1) entered in scientific medicine and included in the Pharmacopoeia of the Soviet Union; 2) used in folk medicine.
Medicinal plant species of plant organisms used for the manufacture of medical and preventive preparations, which are used in medical and veterinary practice. Herbal remedies are more than 30% of all medicinal products traded on the world market. In the USSR, about 40% of the drugs used are made from plants.
Of about 2,500 species of plants from flora of the USSR, including used in folk medicine, have medicinal value.
Diversity of soil and climatic conditions of the USSR allows introducirebuli on its territory numerous species of foreign L. R. cold, temperate and subtropical zones.
As raw material for chemical and pharmaceutical industry, in the pharmacy network and for export can be used more than 600 species of plants. Of this amount, except for minor L. R., practically used in medicine only about 200 species belonging to 70 families (mainly SEM. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, legumes, cereals, umbrella, Solanaceae, buckwheat, cruciferous, Ranunculaceae). About 70% used L. R. applied in galenovom production; other species are used in the pharmacy network, homeopathy and exported.
In the harvesting of wild and cultivated medicinal plants, as a rule, collect individual organs or parts of the plant.
The collection of medicinal plants produce in certain time periods of maximum accumulation of active substances. Collected the raw material is generally dry.
In the USSR is conducted comprehensive studies already known in medicine L. R. (identification of stockpiles, introduction to the culture, increasing yields and finding ways to reduce the cost of raw materials, to establish the best time of collection, drying and storage of raw materials, preparation of new drugs and dosage forms).
Search for new and cheaper sources of vegetable raw materials to replace them already known to the import or scarce medical preparations and medicinal plants with new pharmacological and therapeutic activity (studying their chemical composition, pharmacological activity and therapeutic values, development of technology of production of drugs and their production).
New L. R. and physiologically active substances of plant origin identified by a continuous or a selective chemical and pharmacological study of the flora of certain regions of the USSR. Thus take into account information about the use of some medicinal plants in traditional medicine.
When directed search of a compound study first of all species and genera, phylogenetically close to the plant, which has already been allocated earlier this connection.
Thus, by the present time, the content of alkaloids previously studied more than 6,000 species of plants, the presence of essential oils - more than 4000, for the presence of cardiac glycosides actions studied about 2000, saponins - 3000, flavonoids is about 1000, coumarins with about 1000 species.
As a result, the large number of individual chemical substances, and they created a lot of new medical preparations.