This collection is intended for a wide circle of readers. It tells about the most common acute infectious diseases in children. Along with such childhood infections such as measles, scarlet fever, chickenpox, and other included and disease that equally common among adults, but for children are very dangerous. This is the flu epidemic hepatitis (Botkin's disease), disease, attracts special attention in recent years.
What causes all these diseases, as they are infected and what measures you can to prevent them - here is the main content of this section.
The section is intended for a wide circle of readers. It provides the essential information about widely spread infectious diseases of children. Special attention is paid to care of sick children at home and prevention of infectious diseases.
Infectious diseases in children
- General information about infectious diseases
- Transmission of infectious diseases
- For infectious diseases
- How can you protect the child from infectious diseases
- Respiratory virus infection
- Influenza and of influenza-like illness in children
- Scarlet fever
- Whooping cough
- Epidemic parotitis (mumps)
- Varicella (chickenpox)
- Epidemic meningitis
- Epidemic polio
- Enterovirus infection
- Acute intestinal infections
- Staph infection
- Epidemic hepatitis (Botkin's disease)
Other diseases and injuries occurring in children
- Pyoderma skin
- Peculiarities of metabolism in children
- Dystrophy in children (malnutrition)
- Acquired heart diseases
- Gipervitaminoz D
- Acute abdomen
- Ulcers disease
- Eye injuries
- Bronchial asthma
- Liver cirrhosis
- Bowel obstruction
- The defeat of the nervous system in children with alcohol intoxication
- Prevention of dental caries
- Foodborne diseases
- The pyloric stenosis
- The nervous system of children
- Why the child was nervous (tips for parents)
- Nursing of premature babies
- Mental development of the baby
The fight childhood communicable (infectious) diseases was and remains one of the major health problems.
Especially the great value of this struggle becomes currently, in connection with the resolution providing for a sharp decline in the incidence of infectious diseases, and the elimination of some of them.
The resolution of this problem is busy with many medical personnel, starting from the great scientists of all disciplines (microbiologists, infection specialists, pediatricians) to nurses. However, to this struggle was more successful parent must accept in it active participation. Without a conscious and active support of wide layers of the population, many prevention activities, i.e. activities that contribute to the prevention of disease, are less effective. But in order to provide this help, you need to know the main features of these diseases, and measures to prevent them.
This section is written for exploring the broad spectrum of readers with the most common children's infectious diseases and modern methods of their prevention and treatment. The so-called children's infections are: diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, chicken pox, rubella, mumps, polio. The name "children infections" is widespread, however, these diseases can be adults, but often they suffer the children at the age from 1 year to 8 years. Preemptive the incidence of these infections in children is explained by the ease and speed of their distribution at great opportunities contact (especially in children's institutions, kindergartens, day nurseries, schools).
Many parents believe that every child must inevitably move childhood infectious diseases, and the sooner he gets sick, the easier it will carry the disease. This, of course, wrong. Remember that almost every disease can be prevented and that each disease, including infectious, weakens a child's organism and slows down its development, sometimes for a long time. The younger the child the greater the harm caused by his disease. Therefore, a joint effort of parents and health professionals should be aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases, especially in the first years of a child's life.
Socio-economic importance of children's infectious diseases also is great: they disrupt the normal life of childcare facilities, quarantines tear mothers from production sometimes for a long time, what prevents the production, creates difficulties in family life and results in higher costs of public funds.
Propedeutics of children's diseases
In the third edition of propedeutics of children's diseases" in all the main sections of the doctrine of a healthy child, feeding and care for him again revised and has undergone some processing from the positions of the main ideas physiological exercises I. P. Pavlova. All the chapters have been revised additions and amendments in accordance with new literature data and our own experience.
We wanted to give the student a brief tutorial that would allow him not only from the position of creative Soviet Darwinism and physiological exercises I. P. Pavlov to learn the basics of the doctrine of a healthy child, but who would be interested in him, and helped him to love his future specialty - Pediatrics. We want students - future child's doctor was aware of the enormous importance of the knowledge age peculiarities of a healthy child and a decisive influence on the development of children and resistance of the body to any negative impacts proper organization of the factors of their environment, care, nutrition and education.
At the practical studies in the course of propedeutics of children's diseases, the student must acquire the right skills objective research of the child, so that in the future their activities to be able to detect even minor deviations from the norm, celebrated in the initial phases of the disease. To help the student and this is also one of the objectives of the textbook.
The children's doctor in their everyday work need to emphasize the prevention of childhood diseases and the student to acquire a taste for the work. This is one of the main tasks of proper education of the student of faculty of Pediatrics; textbook of propedeutics of children's diseases should help teachers in this work.
While the methodology of the study children and General semiotics of childhood diseases we consider it necessary to dwell only on the special features of the use of basic clinical evaluation methods of the health status of children of different ages. Theoretical substantiation of these methods are outlined addition to practical training and are described in detail in the books and diagnostics of internal diseases propedeutics. We sincerely thank all comrades who sent us their criticisms, and are especially grateful to the members of the academic Council of the Leningrad state pediatric medical Institute for their valuable comments and guidance, they made during the discussion of the second edition of our book.
All critical comments, which will be made to us about the third edition of "propedeutics of children's diseases", will be received with sincere gratitude.
Produced tutorial - "Propedeutics of children's diseases" - is designed for students of pediatric faculties of medical institutes. In the preparation of the textbook was used the experience of teaching of propedeutics of children's diseases students of the Leningrad state pediatric medical Institute and comments were taken into account criticism made in respect of the chapters, written for the "Handbook of Pediatrics M. S. Maslov, A. F. Round and M, the Danilevich (so I, 1938). These chapters are largely recycled, form the basis of this tutorial.
Perhaps in our work there will be defects, so all instructions and comments, which will be made by the heads of departments, doctors and pupils, will accept with gratitude.
Fourth edition, in which the need arose already in two months after the publication of the third edition, published without any significant changes and additions and only fixed inadvertently crept errors and misprints.
The content and objectives of the course of propedeutics of children's diseases
The initial contents of Pediatrics as one of the medical disciplines has expanded considerably. Pediatrics has long ceased to be a science only on the treatment of sick children and is now regarded as the doctrine of healthy and sick child. This doctrine embraces physiology, dietetics, hygiene, pathology and treatment of the child from birth to puberty. Contemporary Pediatrics attaches particularly great attention to the issues of prevention of diseases of children. Each child's doctor in their everyday practical work should be not only a good doctor who can diagnose and properly treat the sick child, but he must be also a good doctor profilaktika, having good knowledge of the dietetics child, who is able to organize in need of care and to establish a rational mode how to separate the healthy child of any age, and for the whole of children's collective. The children's doctor should not be aside from the issues of upbringing children. All of these various aspects of activities of children's doctor, the student must learn and study mainly during the course of clinical Pediatrics. Propedeutics of children's diseases is an introduction to the pediatric clinic.
In the course of propedeutics of children's diseases include the following four main sections: 1) anatomical and physiological characteristics of children, including the laws of the physical and mental development of the child; 2) the methods of objective study of children, including the characteristics of the gathering of history; 3) General semiotics of childhood diseases; 4) dietetics healthy child with the main elements of the technology of child food.
Without a clear knowledge of these topics are completely unthinkable preventive and curative work pediatrician. A correct assessment data, physical, laboratory and other methods of clinical research of the child and the understanding of the originality of pathology of children is possible only through deep enough knowledge age anatomic and physiological features of a growing child's organism. Without knowledge of the laws of the physical and psychical development of the children, not to make a correct organization of public and individual security, childhood, it is impossible, therefore, to ensure and prevention of children's diseases. This knowledge should be the basis of a rational set of physical education of children.
Clinical study of children requires a significant peculiarity of the medical equipment, the study which should also include in the course of propedeutics of children's diseases.
Brief information on the overall semiotics of the major diseases of childhood should provide the student the proper orientation for the course faculty and hospital Pediatrics.
In the activity the children's doctor, as indicated above, preventive and curative work closely and inextricably linked. That is why in the course of propedeutics of children's diseases great attention should be paid to the dietetics healthy child and the basics of personal hygiene of children as key elements in everyday preventive work of each practical child's doctor. The preventive aspect of activity of pediatricians has acquired a special significance in the Soviet Union, as we have vast majority of children from the earliest age, served preventive and curative childcare institutions, from the correct statement of the case in which a considerable extent on their life and health.
It would be a big mistake to think that you can become good children's doctor without thorough knowledge of the General theoretical disciplines of anatomy, histology, physiology, pathophysiology, and so on), study on Junior courses, and clinical disciplines on various sections of pathology of adults studying in the senior year. The children's doctor only correctly and confidently guided in all theoretical and practical questions of profession, if it has a good General medical training in all disciplines within the program of higher medical school. Only under this condition, it will clearly understand all the features of physiology and pathology of children in different age periods.
It should especially be emphasized that each child's doctor needs to know infectious diseases of childhood and should perfectly orientated in the questions of General and special epidemiology.
The need for such a wide range of knowledge, undoubtedly, does Pediatrics difficult profession, but this way of study provides further good children's doctor great Outlook and extremely interesting and fruitful opportunities for practical and scientific activity.