Table of contents
Tobacco: the spread of the habit of Smoking and trends
Smoking: modern scientific problems
Health effects of cigarettes with low output of nicotine and tar
The control of Smoking
The effect of Smoking on human health is one of the most well-studied problems of modern medicine and health care. A causal relationship between Smoking and a number of malignant tumors, cardiovascular and chronic lung diseases is unmistakable. Smoking has a huge impact on the indicators of human health, and in many countries, leading to the premature death of a significant part of the population. Among the diseases, the development of which to a greater or lesser extent associated with Smoking, should be called malignant tumors of different localization, ischemic heart disease, lung heart, aortic aneurysm, peripheral vessels, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombosis of the cerebral vessels and chronic nonspecific lung diseases. Mortality from diseases listed above is 50-60 % of the total mortality in developed countries.
In the USSR the morbidity and mortality of most of these diseases for the last decade has increased and continues to grow. Although the role of Smoking in their origin, as noted, is well known, made very little to prevent them.
On the basis of statistics the implementation of tobacco products, and also by results of the polls can be said that the number of smokers in our country until recently increased, while in some countries of Europe and America this indicator in the late 70-ies began to decline. Following the reduction of the frequency of Smoking in these countries has been a tendency to decrease morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. If indicators of cardiovascular disease could be affected by other factors, such as dietary modification and/or increased physical activity, the reduction in the incidence of cancer of the lung can almost entirely be attributed to reduce the frequency of Smoking.
There have also been significant changes in the levels of tar contained in tobacco smoke. The consumption of cigarettes with low tar in the last 20-30 years is explained by the reduction in the incidence of cancer of the lung, which began in the mid 70-ies in some countries and is still ongoing.
The monograph "Smoking and health", which is a work that addresses almost all aspects of the harmful effects of Smoking on human health, as well as the main approaches to the prevention of diseases associated with Smoking is the first publication of this kind in our country. It seems that it will be useful for people involved in the unfolding in our country campaign against Smoking.
Smoking of tobacco products is currently one of the main causes of disease and death it causes cancer, chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The list of target organs, smitten of cancer caused by exposure to tobacco, impressively: lungs, bladder, renal pelvis, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, and possibly liver.
Therefore, evidence of the severe consequences of Smoking for health convincing and numerous that it is difficult to understand why is so difficult once was (and still is not easier) to launch a successful preventive measures. The answer to this question, probably, is ambiguous.
On the one hand, it is experienced by people difficulty in giving up habits, which are firmly rooted in their culture and daily life. Most people believe that the decision about Smoking is their own business, and this choice is very common. They get satisfaction from it, and at the same time unable to understand or to take into account the evidence of continuous rise associated with Smoking danger. On the other hand, in all countries there is an interest of the state in income from the sale of tobacco products.
Evidently, it is necessary to convince the government not only in the fact that the sale of tobacco products is incompatible with the preservation of citizens ' health, but that there are other ways to maintain the level of the national economy.
Recently there was evidence that the person using cigarettes, Smoking which are tar and nicotine in high concentrations, are at greater risk of developing lung cancer than those who smoke cigarettes with lower levels of allocation of resin. Tobacco is a mixture containing a large number of different chemical substances, many of which revealed no carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Resin produced by pyrolysis of tobacco, undoubtedly contains carcinogenic chemical substances, and this suggests that by reducing the smoke from a burning cigarette level of one of these fractions can reduce carcinogenic activity of the whole mixture as a whole. It is obvious that tobacco smoke will remain carcinogenic and in that case, if it contains less tar.
The cessation of the manufacture of cigarettes with high levels of allocation of pitches when Smoking potentially reduce the risk of developing lung cancer; but there is no doubt that any event not exclude completely the production and use of tobacco products, is only temporary. It is only a step towards a truly adequate measures to prevent harm to health caused by Smoking, namely: to quit tobacco use and consider it as a widespread crops. It should also clearly emphasize that there is absolutely no evidence that the so-called malemolencia cigarettes have any impact in reducing the incidence of diseases of the cardiovascular system and mortality from them.
In order to achieve the complete cessation of Smoking and tobacco replacement different crop that will inevitably take time to conduct intensive and widespread health education of the population, which should begin early in life. It is important to bring to the attention of every man, that introduction of tobacco in our culture has happened recently and the use of cigarettes has become a widespread habit only in the last century, so there is no reason to believe that humanity will not be able to continue existence without tobacco. Tobacco is carcinogenic not only combustion and formation of smoke, but also in the case when chew it. Recently, widespread advertising, which claimed that chewing tobacco is harmless, is clearly contrary to quite specific data on the carcinogenic action in this method of its use.
The fact of distribution of addiction to Smoking around the world makes this problem a truly international health challenge, and to be commended the all-Union oncological centre of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR for the initiative of convening this meeting together with IARC.
Is it true that...
Vladimir Presnyakov Jr. did not smoke?
's true. Don't smoke and Michael Jackson, and members of pop group "ABBA". And students Scandinavia and the UK even believe that Smoking is bad form. They are in their schools campaign against Smoking under the slogan "Smoking generation ". The senior pupils come into Junior, promote healthy way of life, sports, distribute leaflets with photos non-athletes and rock stars. They believe that by the year 2000 in Scandinavia will be a whole generation Smoking young people.
In the United States and Australia are even rock festivals, supporting the fight against Smoking.
This is what we told Alexander V. Prokhorov, candidate of medical Sciences, senior researcher, all-Union center