Diseases of the colon and rectum in recent times are becoming more common. There are many reasons to sessile and sedentary lifestyle, eating habits of modern man, the impact of environmental changes. Section tells about the achievements of proctology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the most common diseases of the colon and rectum.
Diseases of the colon and rectum met before quite often recently, however, there is some tendency to its increase. So widespread among the population of hemorrhoids, fissures, proctitis, colitis and other diseases remains a serious problem for various surgeons, internists, gastroenterologists, infectionists and others In clinical practice, the diseases of this kind, as well as functional disorders of the large intestine, occur almost every day.
A serious obstacle in the fight against proctologic diseases is the well known fact that many patients because of false modesty hide their disease for a long time do not dare to go to the doctors and continue to suffer from various unpleasant sensations in the anus and rectum, which naturally has an impact on the state of their nervous system, and ability to work.
Meanwhile, proctology recently received extremely broad development. According to C. D. Fedorov and his co-diseases of the colon occur at an average of 306 of 1000 patients. Precancerous colon amount of 37.3%, the cancer is 2.6% (from 1 million anal patients).
However, if the statistical evidence on the comparative incidence of cancer of the colon, you can recognize more or less reliable, the materials of functional and inflammatory lesions of the intestine require a more careful assessment and scientific analysis. This is because in a wide clinical practice, diagnosis of chronic colitis, for example, was put mainly on the basis of clinical symptoms. At the same time objective endoscopic (colonoscopy) and morphological (colonise) studies have shown that inflammatory diseases of the large bears are not so common and, according to our data, are found in 28% of the 500 surveyed with primary diagnosis "chronic colitis, and the vast majority of patients (72%) suffer from various functional disorders of the intestine, developing against the background of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The mechanism of functional diseases of the colon is unclear - it is very difficult. No doubt that a significant group consists of neuroses bowel psychogenic nature. Of great importance in the pathogenesis of the disease is a hormonal effect.
Experience shows that diseases of the colon often accompanied by various pathological processes in the system of organs of digestive apparatus (chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease of stomach and duodenum, and so on). Reliably established a direct correlation violations of motor activity of the large intestine from a significant increase of acidity of gastric juice. In such patients, even in periods of remission of ulcerative disease remain, for example, persistent constipation and other functional bowel disorders. In patients with chronic gastritis with reduced secretory function of the stomach is very often observed hypotension colon. These and many other facts speak to a close, inseparable connection of all departments of the gastrointestinal tract, all its "floors".
The main objective of these articles is to give the doctors of different specialties clear picture of the disease the colon, the factors leading to their appearance and treatment (mostly conservative) and preventive measures. Special issues of surgical treatment, in particular details of surgical interventions, we are here principally missed, for they relate to the competence of technicians.
- Clinical anatomy and physiology
- Objective methods of diagnostics
- Epithelial coccygeal course
- Ulcerative colitis
- Cancer of the colon and rectum
We stayed more or less detail on some, however the most common lesions of the colon and rectum. The reader, perhaps, could ensure that the success of diagnosis and therapy of many diseases, of which we spoke, to a large extent depends on the care of a patient to their health, the experience and qualification of the doctor who need to identify and eliminate a danger threatening to the patient.