Psychiatry is the area of clinical medicine studying symptoms, etiology and pathogenesis of mental diseases, their prevention, treatment and the organization of care for psychiatric patients. The research area of psychiatry is not limited to psychosis (so-called big psychiatry), but extends to neurosis (see) and psychopathy (see) - the so-called small, or edge, psychiatry. Psychiatry is divided into General psychiatry (psychopathology), studying the symptomology of mental diseases and psychiatry private investigating individual mental illness.
In the course of psychiatry pursued the goal to give students the necessary theoretical knowledge and practical skills for the recognition of diseases and the provision of primary care patients with mental disorders.
The future doctor, regardless of their specialty should know whether he has to deal with mentally healthy or sick person. If this is mentally ill, then you should choose the necessary type of assistance. Taking into account the mental state of the patient should be solved the question of the form of psychiatric care. Assistance may be emergency (drug administration, direction to the hospital and so on) or in the form of evidence-based recommendations.
Besides solving practical medical issues, duty doctor, particularly hygienic profile includes conducting preventive work. Prevention is one of the distinguishing features of the Soviet medicine and plays an important role in the fight for the health of the Soviet people. Effective prevention leads to the prevention not only of mental illness, but also various forms of somatic pathology, the origin of which can be set to emotional stress. A great contribution to General medical prevention and the psychological prevention make a General hygiene and mental hygiene. These disciplines, developing relevant issues, make recommendations to strengthen the physical and mental health, which reduces the risk of various diseases and contributes to the harmonious development of personality.
In our country widely and actively at the national level measures to eliminate various impurities which may adversely affect human health. The struggle against the pollution of the environment, are eliminated occupational hazards in production and so on In the Soviet Union there are no social conditions that could negatively affect people's health. The rights of Soviet citizens to education, work, free quality medical care, etc. are guaranteed by the Constitution and regulated by law. Medical care, presents a comprehensive General and specialised services, provides detection, treatment of patients, as well as continuity in their observation.
Psychiatry as one of the major medical disciplines includes many scientific and practical problems. One of these problems, which includes both theoretical and practical aspects, is to establish the prevalence and manifestations of mental disorders. Data on the prevalence of mental disorders and their manifestations in the population give a scientific material for planning mental health care, clarify important etiological factors, as well as for development on their basis of effective prevention measures.
Mental illness in their manifestations heterogeneous. The extent of their individual forms, manifestations should be on the correct methodological basis. A departure from this principle leads to a false theoretical and practical conclusions.
Soviet psychiatrists consider mental illness as a result of a disorder of the brain activity, leading to impaired ability reflection and knowledge of the external Myrtle, change of the being and the consciousness of his personality. The cerebral activity can occur under the influence of external (infection, intoxication, trauma, malnutrition, brain, psychogenic , and so on) or internal reasons of defects metabolism, degenerative processes caused by predisposition and the complex of other factors. As a result of this partially or completely disturbed behaviour and adaptation of patients to the conditions of life.
Disorders of the brain in patients on the nature of the symptoms and severity are different and depend on the specifics of mental illness, the form and stage of its passage. So, diseases that cause shallow disorder of brain function, the power of reflection and the cognition of the external world, as a rule, is not disrupted, and mental disorders in patients mainly manifested in the change of state of health and the difficulties of social adaptation. In cases involving deeper lesions of the brain, can be completely change the behavior and installation of the patient; in the perception and comprehension of the surrounding acquire crucial painful motives. The first group of diseases is called borderline disorders, which include mainly the neuroses and psychopathy. They occupy an intermediate position between mental health and severe mental disorders. The second group consists psychosis (in the past, patients with such disorders called analysandum). Each of these groups of diseases heterogeneous and includes various diseases, which has its own nature, the clinical features and prognosis.
Differentiated definition of the status of the mentally ill taking into account peculiarities of their disease is of great importance. This issue was the subject of many researches on the basis of which it was suggested different classification of mental diseases. Most evidence-would classification built on etiological principle. However, knowledge about the origin of most mental illnesses are still insufficient, and in General taxonomy of mental illness is under construction on etiological, clinical and other principles. In addition, a system of classification of mental diseases of the impact of General theoretical installation that prevail at any stage of the development of psychiatry. Soviet psychiatrists unlike many foreign believe it possible to systematize mental illness, as well as somatic, on the basis of common etiology, pathogenesis and clinical picture.
Studying of separate nosological units in theoretical and practical terms is the subject of private psychiatry. Study of characteristics of mental illness, private them signs (symptoms), specific psychopathological States (sets of symptoms syndrome), pathogenetic mechanisms of psychopathological disorders is the task of General psychopathology. The study of psychological regularities in the formation of mental disorders is the subject of pathophysiology.
Diagnostic evaluation of patients is based on the existing General international or national classification of mental diseases. Despite the importance of obtaining reliable data on the true prevalence of mental disorders among the population of psychiatrists them, unfortunately, do not have. This fact depends on a number of reasons: the mentally ill, especially with ulterior types of mental disorders, rarely seek the help of doctors-psychiatrists. The reasons for this may be the lack of a critical attitude to the state, the unwillingness to be registered by the doctors-psychiatrists, and so on, there are No clear universally recognized criteria distinguishing number of the lungs border forms of mental disorders from those States that may be within "mental norm". The latter may be assigned a separate characteristic features of people, passing light mental disorders (subclinical manifestation). In this regard, data on the prevalence of psychiatric patients in the population, received, as a rule, the results of treatment of patients in inpatient or outpatient psychiatric assistance, have large fluctuations. According to these data, from 10 to 20% of the population in need of psychiatric care. Data on the number of patients with severe mental disorders (schizophrenia) is much less subject to fluctuations and are on average 1-3% of the total population.