Section 3. The concept of sports medicine

What is sports medicine, what is its place among the other medical disciplines, what is its content and objectives?
The first question we have already answered sports medicine is a part of clinical medicine. It has its own clearly defined the content and objectives that differ from other disciplines, in particular physiology.
One of the main topics of sports medicine is the medical control, representing, in essence, a medical observation engaged in physical culture and sports.
The tasks of medical control is the definition of health, physical development and functional state of organs and systems in persons engaged in physical activity, and monitor their changes under the influence of physical culture and sports in order to study how the positive impact of these activities, and possible negative when their irrational use.
After determining health condition and physical development, the most important task of medical control is the assessment of the functional condition of the sportsman, i.e. determination of fitness. The correct solution to this problem is of great importance, as it allows not only to study the effect of exercise on the body, but also with scientific and medical items to find a road to the records.
The solution to this problem is a major element in the study of theory, methods and techniques of the sport.
It helps the doctor, coach and athlete to outline the rational ways of perfection of sports skill.
Essential in this task have and medical-pedagogical observation, i.e., research conducted by the doctor together with the trainer on-the-spot training and competitions. These observations sometimes play a crucial role in the individualization of training process, proper planning.
This section of medical control continuously improved and developed. New, more subtle and precise, research methods, improved old methods of research of functional condition of the sportsman's organism, are increasingly integrated research, etc.
At the same time in sports medicine is developing, especially in recent years, the region, task of which is to study the possible negative effects of physical activity when it is irrational use. It is about the diseases and injuries of various organs and body systems arising from excessive or irrational applied physical activity.
Earlier in this direction was studied only sports injury. Now, given the increasing training loads that are sometimes on the verge of overload, it is important to examine also pre-pathological conditions and diseases in athletes that may occur in the physical overload.
Thus, in front of sports medicine assigned with the following tasks:
1) determination of a state of health and physical development and supervision of their changes under the influence of physical training and sport;
2) determination of the level of fitness, rather, functional status, and its changes;
3) diagnosis and treatment of sports injuries, diseases and injuries in athletes and development of measures on their prevention;
4) improvement of old and development of new methods of research for a more accurate assessment of the health status and functional state, as well as for early diagnosis and timely treatment of various health problems engaged in physical culture and sports, i.e. the development of functional diagnostics;
5) nutrition and hygiene provision of places of training and competitions (these issues are stated in the course of hygiene).
All these activities are performed by the sports doctor. Before him, as seen from above, and there are serious diagnostic tasks that require, on the one hand, high medical training, on the other - a clear knowledge of the various sporting activities in the light of the specific requirements set by them to the body of an athlete.
The main ways of solving these challenges are the following:
1. The diagnosis of "healthy", which is to put the sports doctor before being allowed to sports, is sometimes more difficult than the diagnosis of any disease. After all, the athlete must be completely healthy person, and in order to determine this, one has to know the symptoms of certain diseases. So, we can not assert that the given person healthy heart, not knowing what symptoms are when a sick heart.
Various deviations in health do not play an essential role for parties not involved in sports, and not hindering them to perform normal professional work, the athlete with modern exercise can become a dangerous disease, which sometimes result in disability and even death from physical overstrain.
Therefore, the term "practically healthy", widely used by persons not involved in sports, and testifying that available to that person, the disease does not prevent him to perform his normal professional activity (for example, heart disease or chronic bronchitis accountant or constructor, and so on)cannot be used for the athlete, because he should not be deviations in health status. Healthy people should be encouraged classes recreation physical culture.
In addition, it is important to know that good feeling that athletes and coaches are sometimes considered important in assessing the state of health, cannot serve as the main criterion of assessment. Despite the fact that good health is always accompanied by good health, you can feel good at the time when the body is already there are signs of the disease.
It should be borne in mind that the establishment of records does not always indicates good health. Possible cases of setting a record in the sport athlete who is not absolutely healthy. The fact that the human body has enormous compensatory possibilities and mechanisms of compensation arising in the case of defects are very large. It makes possible due to overload other bodies and overvoltage compensation mechanisms to mask the defect in health status. However, compensatory capabilities of the organism is not limitless. They inevitably fail and the faster, the more intense use them.
Therefore, cannot be considered as absolutely healthy man only on the grounds that he feels good and sets records. In order to objectively ascertain the true state of health, be sure a thorough medical examination.
2. Identify and correct assessment sports physician functional condition of the sportsman's organism, or condition of fitness, become more complex every year. This is because the continuous growth of sports results, increase of the volume and intensity of training loads substantially change of functional state of organism. Often the criteria, that seemed unshakable, failed in solving today life issues.
Determination of functional state of organism of individuals of different age and health, and so on, are widely involved in the exercise, is also challenging because of the lack of objective assessment criteria.
In addition, more and more becomes apparent significant difference in the level of vegetative functions in athletes of different specializations. This means that to achieve good results there is no need to equally high level of functional state of all systems and organs all athletes. These levels can be different, as well as various and morphological features, depending on its specific sports specialization.
Now it is obvious that for each athlete characterized by its own specific to the sport harmonious development (morphological and functional), depending on the orientation of training process.
In fact, it is not the same as in relation to the morphology and function, for example, the weightlifter is heavy weight and gymnast, a putter and a swimmer, a basketball player and a skater. Representatives of each of these sports have their inherent in them, especially in the structure of the body and its functions, essentially different and defining specific harmony characteristic of a particular sport.
3. Diagnosis and treatment of sports injuries, diseases and injuries during sports activities are one of the most important and difficult tasks sports physician, because they have certain specifics. This section applies to so-called private pathology, i.e., the doctrine of human diseases.
It should be stressed that sport is not and cannot be the cause of illness. However, athletes get sick, and first of all, because, like all people, are exposed to various harmful effects of the environment. They can have different infectious and other diseases. However, they get sick less often and carry diseases easier, than those not involved in sports. In addition, in the case of irrational physical activities that cause physical and emotional overload, the conditions for the occurrence of acute and chronic diseases, as well as sports injuries.
That's why the coach and teachers need to have a clear idea of the main manifestations of the essence and meaning of these pathological conditions, as it is in many ways from the actions of a coach or a teacher depends on the occurrence of injuries, diseases and injuries and their prevention.
4. Development of methods of functional research provides the right decision the first three tasks medical control. The coach and the teacher should know the methods of research used a sports doctor, first of all in order to have a clear understanding of the opportunities that he has. At the same time a number of methods can be used and coach and teacher for the solution of purely methodological issues of sports training.
This is the main content of the course of medical control with the basics of private pathology.
In this tutorial also includes therapeutic physical culture - health is the study of physical exercise to treat a variety of patients.
Trainer and lecturer should be able to use physical exercises and for medicinal purposes. In order to rationally use therapeutic physical culture, it is necessary to know the nature and manifestation of disease that may its application (this is described in the basis for private pathology in the section "Medical monitoring").
Inclusion in this tutorial sports massage is because in modern sport massage application is absolutely necessary. Therefore every teacher or trainer regardless of their sports specialization should know the basics of sports massage, main principles of its application and techniques. Any athlete, especially a coach and a teacher must not only master the techniques of massage and self-massage, but clearly about mechanisms of influence on the body. Sports massage helps preserve the sports form, increases efficiency of the athlete, helps the fastest elimination of fatigue after exercise.
Thus, obviously, the importance medicine as in the establishment of an athlete, and in the development of science-based system of training.
It is no exaggeration to say that without knowledge of the basics of sports medicine, a certain level of medical culture that receive teacher and coach at mastering of the course described in this tutorial, there is not and cannot be successful work with the athletes, the growth of sport achievements, based on strengthening the health of the athlete.