Introduction to the tutorial
The subject of forensic medicine and the history of its development. Procedural and organizational fundamentals of forensic medical service
Forensic thanatology and examination of the corpse
Damage and death from acute oxygen starvation
Damage of mechanical origin
Damage from other external influences
Poisoning and their forensic medical establishment
Forensic medical examination of the victims, suspects and accused
Forensic science and practice in the implementation of health problems
The subject, methods and content of forensic medicine
Forensic medicine is the branch of medicine that represents the body of knowledge and special methods used to address issues of medico-biological problems that arise in the activities of law enforcement bodies, as well as specific health problems.
The circle of scientific interests and resolve issues associates forensic medicine with various branches of medicine, pathological anatomy, surgery, obstetrics, Pediatrics and others), as well as a number of other disciplines - criminology, civil and criminal law and procedure, physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, etc. It makes wide use in forensic medicine approaches and techniques used in other areas. In forensic medicine are developed specific means and methods of research, such as diagnostics of limitation of death, the establishment of gun injuries and mechanisms of damage and other widespread as in scientific research in forensic medicine and for appraisal received experimental method, including modelling. This method allows to reproduce a particular event, most fully to appreciate them and to fully answer the questions arising in the process of interrogation, investigation or trial.
Widely used analysis of sectional and clinical material, allowing to identify the causes of sudden death, injury, poisoning, errors doctors and defects of professional work of medical personnel. This analysis is the basis for the definition of measures of prevention and improvement of the quality of clinical work.
In forensic medicine, decided to allocate the procedural and organizational section, which examines the content and interpretation of laws and departmental instructions, rights, duties, competence and responsibility of forensic experts, organization of forensic medical services. The subject of forensic medicine of the theory and practice of forensic examination, i.e. the direct application of medical knowledge for the purposes of the investigation and judicial practice. The content of the actual forensic medicine as a science are:
- forensic thanatology (the doctrine of death and postmortal processes);
- forensic medical traumatology (the doctrine of the damage and the mechanisms of their formation);
- forensic obstetrics and gynecology (the study of controversial issues genital States and other);
- forensic toxicology (methods of diagnostics and prevention of poisoning);
- the study of hypoxic States (their causes, morphological manifestations and methods of diagnostics, the actions of critical temperatures, electrical and radiant energy, barotrauma);
- examination of evidence of biological origin;
- the edge (forensics) issues of identification, tools injury, expertise on materials of the investigation and court cases.
Objects of forensic medical examination are corpses, victims, defendants and other persons, material evidence of biological origin, and also the materials and documents.
Practical application of forensic medicine, reflecting the impact of legal norms, shows that these norms and legal science has always had and have a social-political character and are subordinated to the interests of the ruling class.
Forensic science in the USSR and its practical application (examination) have a fundamental difference from the forensic medicine of the bourgeois States. From the beginning of formation of the Soviet forensic medical examination and throughout the subsequent development it has acquired a number of traits. First of all, this state-organized system, which provides the development and application of scientific evidence in the investigation and judicial consideration of criminal and civil cases. For objectification of the expert evidence of use of modern scientific achievements of the natural Sciences, medicine, physics and chemistry. Forensic medical examination renders all possible assistance to the health authorities in improving medical aid to the population and reducing morbidity and mortality.
A characteristic feature and feature modern scientific work carried out in the scientific and practical forensic medical institutions of the USSR, is the mandatory use of laboratory techniques, often their rational complexes (methods used in physics, Biophysics, histochemistry, biochemistry, serology, Cytology , and so on), which increases the reliability of the expert's conclusion and its evidential value. The results of scientific research conducted by forensic doctors and chemists, are published in periodicals and monographs.
A large spread in the studies of forensic medical examination of the corpses, victims and other persons, physical evidence) received emission spectrography, absorption spectral analysis, spectrophotometry, photoelectrocolorimeter, radiography (in its various forms), biochemical and biophysical research, electrophoresis on paper, immunoelectrophoresis, chromatography (in its different modifications), the reactions of electroprecizia, immunoelectrophoretic, absorption-elution, "mixed" agglutination and other
For doctors training in forensic medicine in the USSR is the uniform teaching of forensic medicine on a single program for students of General, pediatric and sanitary faculties. In accordance with this publishes educational and methodological literature.
In the teaching of forensic medicine, the production of scientific researches and in practice of forensic experts used materials and methods, employees health objectives: the prevention of injuries, intoxications, untimely and sudden death, as well as the prevention of errors in the diagnostic and medical doctors.
Postgraduate training of forensic experts in the USSR is conducted in residency, internship and specialization of doctors credited to the position of forensic experts. To ensure the high quality of forensic medical examination is provided by mandatory periodic training of experts in the relevant departments of the institutes of advanced training of doctors, and also special courses for retraining and job creation for the development of some new techniques.