Anoxia its influence on the organism

  • Historical data
  • Classification of anoxia
  • The term "anoxemia" is often used to indicate the status of oxygen starvation of the body. This word comes from the Greek roots [EN (deprivation)+oxygen (oxygen)+Accademia (haima) (blood)and is a means lack of oxygen; more precisely, it should be applied only in this sense. However, there are conditions under which the body suffers from oxygen starvation, not the result of lack of oxygen in the blood, Barcroft believed that the General term "anoxia, which should be interpreted as "oxygen deficiency", includes all hypoxic conditions of the body regardless of the reasons. He believed that, in addition to the existing three types of anoxia: "anoxic", "anemic" and "stagnant", there is a fourth, and Peter van slick called "gistologicescoe by anoxia" (from the Greek GESTOS - cloth, toxin - poison).
    The term "anoxia" actually means "without oxygen, and therefore against it possible objections.
    The term "wikopedia (or hypoxemia") is used by some authors to describe the subnormal supply of oxygen. In favor of this term is possible to result much, and he deserves wider dissemination. Recently, Wiggers suggested that the term "hypoxia" would be used when there is in the air we breathe to 12% oxygen, and "anoxia" - at the lower of its percentage. The division of the degree of oxygen starvation probably will not meet with General approval. "Oxygen deficiency" is an acceptable term, although imply that the lack of oxygen can be shared. Less objective the term "oxygen deficiency" and "oxygen deficiency". This General terms not define the reasons of insufficient supply of oxygen. Although the term "anoxia" really means a General lack of oxygen, but its application cannot be likened to the application in the medical literature of the term "anemia", which does not mean that the person is depleted.
    Anoxia, without doubt, is the most appropriate term, because by combining with the words "anoxic, anemic, stagnant" or "gistologicescoe" you can precisely define the type of oxygen deficiency.
    The word "apnea" means "without a pulse" (GK. a - deprivation, sfigmos - pulse) and should not be used as a synonym of anoxia. However, it is well established in the literature that it is often used, having ! mind oxygen deficiency; for example, anoxia caused by carbon monoxide, often called GO-asphyxiation. It is necessary to recognize that the term "asphyxia" is not good. In the literature there is no clear distinction between the state of hypoxia and asphyxia. The definition given in respect of these two terms, medical dictionaries, not assess them, but only contribute to the confusion. The author agrees with Gellhorn and Lambert (Gellhom, Lambert), stating that "it is important precise distinction between anoxia and asphyxia, as under strict conditions of physiological experiment asphyxia may be substantially different from anoxia". He also agrees with their assertion that anoxia should be considered as a condition resulting from a reduced oxygen supply to tissues, while the term "asphyxia" would apply not only when anoxia, but at higher voltages of carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues. Henderson and the Result was investigated two forms of asphyxia. One form is caused by cessation of breathing with the accumulation in the body of excess carbon dioxide. It is caused by any cessation of breathing as in mechanical blockage of the trachea, and when exposed to poisons, paralyzing breath. With the development of anoxia in the body of accumulated carbon dioxide, so that simultaneously affect both of these conditions. In another form of asphyxia no obstacles from the side of breath. This type of asphyxia, as explained by the authors, may be caused by the inhalation of nitrogen or other inert gases, or by deprivation of oxygen. Because there is no obstacle to the elimination of carbon dioxide, the effects on the body manifests only anoxia. According to the authors, the first form of asphyxia, described by these researchers, should be called by asphyxia, and the second anoxia.
    Recently, Henderson wrote that "asphyxia include the lack of oxygen and the lack of carbon dioxide". Apparently he believed that the term "asphyxia" rather approaching anoxia. The author believes that in asphyxia conditions is the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the lungs, the blood and tissues of the body. If this concept really adopted many biologists, then it will be easy to adopt the difference between anoxia and asphyxia: anoxia - reducing the supply of oxygen to tissues, asphyxia - combination of anoxia with the increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues. If this distinction is generally accepted, it will be possible to do away with the misperceptions and to strictly distinguish asphyxia from anoxia.
    Van Lear known for 15-20 years as an authoritative physiologist, working mainly in the field of questions of digestion. Over the last 10 years the author otherwise worked for the study of influences on man of low barometric pressure and oxygen starvation, while collecting and processing all the literature on the issues of anoxia. The result of this work and this book is.
    The major drawback of the book is the absence in it of references to many Russians works published before 1941 and during the great Patriotic war. Meanwhile, some sections of our national research are of great interest and have a higher value than the quoted author. This concerns of sections of digestion in the heights, the functions of the Central nervous system and sense organs, as well as violations of the acid-alkaline balance. Therefore, the book includes a list of Russian literature by anoxia, acquaintance with which will help the reader to make up for this disadvantage.
    The book with interest will be read as aviation doctors and clinicians, who every day there are cases of oxygen deficiency, due to the inferiority of the respiratory or cardiovascular systems.