Sports medicine

Sports medicine - the branch of medicine that studies the problems of physical culture and sports. The main tasks of sports medicine: a study of effects on the body of exercise as a factor of health promotion, improve health and longevity, substantiation of rational methods of physical exercises and sports training. Sports medicine is also exploring the environmental conditions that contribute to the effectiveness of exercise, develop measures for preventing and treating harmful effects of the misuse of physical exercises. Along with the mass observations (see Medical control) are also conducted experimental research in laboratories, hospitals, medical exercises dispensaries (see), gymnasiums, stadiums. Cm. also the Sport, Physical culture.

Diseases and injuries during sports activities

In section presents the methods of diagnostics, treatment and prevention of diseases in athletes. For sports doctors and General practitioners.
  • Introduction
  • Vision - tips ophthalmologist young athlete
  • The incidence of sportsmen and its structure
  • The structure of morbidity athletes
  • The influence of orientation of training process on the incidence of athletes
  • The causes of disease in athletes
  • Is chronic infections and immunobiological reactivity in the occurrence of disease in athletes
  • Classification of causes of disease in athletes
  • Classification of causes of sudden death in athletes
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system
  • Physiological "athlete's heart"
  • Pathological "athlete's heart"
  • Tonzillacktomii syndrome
  • Changes in blood pressure
  • Hypertensive status
  • Hypertensive status
  • Functional tests in the diagnosis of various forms of Hyper - and hypotensive States
  • Violations heart rhythm
  • Degeneration of myocardium by physical overload
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Diseases of veins
  • Diseases of the respiratory system
  • Acute respiratory viral diseases
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Acute pneumonia
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Spontaneous pneumothorax
  • Tuberculosis
  • Dry pleurisy
  • Lung cancer
  • Diseases of kidneys and urinary tract

    Kidney diseases are one of the most difficult to diagnose areas of medicine due to the fact that their symptoms often unexpressed. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in athletes, who can be such physiological changes in the kidneys and urinary tract, which makes it difficult for timely detection of pathological lesions.
  • Physiological changes of the kidneys and urinary tract
  • Pathological changes of the kidneys and urinary tract
  • Diseases of the digestive system
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

  • Chronic gastritis
  • Chronic enteritis and enterocolitis
  • Ulcers disease stomach and duodenal ulcer
  • Diseases of the biliary tract and the liver
  • Chronic cholecystitis (gastric)
  • Liver disease
  • Giardiasis
  • Diseases of the blood system
  • Physiological changes of the blood system at rest
  • Physiological changes of blood during exercise
  • Pathological changes of blood
  • Diseases of endocrine system
  • Diseases and injuries of the nervous system

    Modern sport pulls out large requirements to the human nervous system. Obviously, diseases of the nervous system, both Central and peripheral, and its damage can, on the one hand, to prevent sports activities, on the other, to arise out of its irrational use.
    This Chapter outlines the most common diseases and injuries of the nervous system athlete.
  • Closed craniocerebral injury
  • Features of craniocerebral trauma in boxers
  • Neuroses and neurozopodobne state
  • Diseases and injuries of the peripheral nervous system

  • Sciatica
  • Lumbago
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • Intercostal neuralgia
  • Occipital nerve neuralgia
  • Neuritis of the facial nerve
  • Sacroiliac
  • Damage of peripheral nerves
  • Injuries of the spine and spinal cord
  • Spine diseases (osteochondrosis)

  • Conclusion
  • List of literature
  • Questions about the disease in athletes, in particular, about the pathological changes of internal organs and nervous system become every year more acute. Continuous increase athletic performance requires to achieve more intensive training, which naturally increases the risk of overload with all the ensuing consequences. So, for example, significantly increased the number of athletes with violations of the heart rhythm, no doubt become more manifest chronic cholecystitis , etc., unfortunately, we have to admit that, despite the growing importance of these issues, they are developed in sports medicine is not enough, and some don't pay much attention. And if in sports cardiology is known successes, sports dermatology, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, gynecology and others in fact, we are not developed, though there is an urgent need.
    In sports traumatology, along with the undeniable advances in surgical treatment of severe injury, very little attention is paid to diseases and injuries of muscles and mountaincase system, bones and periosteum, joints and joint capsules that do not require surgical intervention. These surgical diseases, representing 70 % of all injuries of musculoskeletal system in athletes, need skilled surgical assistance, but not studied in the extent to which they require.
    The main task of sports medicine is the study of the ways of rising skills of athletes to increase training and so on, Contributes to this some of the ambiguity of the provisions of sports medicine as a science. On the one hand, it is associated with the state sports Committee, subordinate which are quite powerful of the Department of sports medicine institutes of physical culture and departments of sports medicine research institutes. Naturally, the state sports Committee sets for its sports physicians issues in which he is interested. Questions pathology do not apply to them, and in them the leadership of state Committee of insufficiently competent. As for the Ministry of health, although all medical and physical training service (clinics, physicians for physical culture and so on) and is subordinated to it, it works, in essence, by order of state Committee. The Ministry of health of such a large number of their problems that sports medicine among them is a very small place, moreover, that the idea that sport and diseases incompatible exists in the Ministry of health.

  • Academician Evgeny Chazov: "we Have to move!"
  • Yu. Makarenko, doctor of medical Sciences Disease № 1"
  • Academician Vladimir Zuev: "Without skis, without running't live"
  • The impact of sport and physical culture on the heart
  • Sport medicine and therapeutic physical training