Sports medicine - the branch of medicine that studies the problems of physical culture and sports. The main tasks of sports medicine: a study of effects on the body of exercise as a factor of health promotion, improve health and longevity, substantiation of rational methods of physical exercises and sports training. Sports medicine is also exploring the environmental conditions that contribute to the effectiveness of exercise, develop measures for preventing and treating harmful effects of the misuse of physical exercises. Along with the mass observations (see Medical control) are also conducted experimental research in laboratories, hospitals, medical exercises dispensaries (see), gymnasiums, stadiums. Cm. also the Sport, Physical culture.
Diseases and injuries during sports activitiesIn section presents the methods of diagnostics, treatment and prevention of diseases in athletes. For sports doctors and General practitioners.
Diseases of kidneys and urinary tractKidney diseases are one of the most difficult to diagnose areas of medicine due to the fact that their symptoms often unexpressed. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in athletes, who can be such physiological changes in the kidneys and urinary tract, which makes it difficult for timely detection of pathological lesions.
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
Diseases and injuries of the nervous systemModern sport pulls out large requirements to the human nervous system. Obviously, diseases of the nervous system, both Central and peripheral, and its damage can, on the one hand, to prevent sports activities, on the other, to arise out of its irrational use.
This Chapter outlines the most common diseases and injuries of the nervous system athlete.
Diseases and injuries of the peripheral nervous system
Questions about the disease in athletes, in particular, about the pathological changes of internal organs and nervous system become every year more acute. Continuous increase athletic performance requires to achieve more intensive training, which naturally increases the risk of overload with all the ensuing consequences. So, for example, significantly increased the number of athletes with violations of the heart rhythm, no doubt become more manifest chronic cholecystitis , etc., unfortunately, we have to admit that, despite the growing importance of these issues, they are developed in sports medicine is not enough, and some don't pay much attention. And if in sports cardiology is known successes, sports dermatology, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, gynecology and others in fact, we are not developed, though there is an urgent need.
In sports traumatology, along with the undeniable advances in surgical treatment of severe injury, very little attention is paid to diseases and injuries of muscles and mountaincase system, bones and periosteum, joints and joint capsules that do not require surgical intervention. These surgical diseases, representing 70 % of all injuries of musculoskeletal system in athletes, need skilled surgical assistance, but not studied in the extent to which they require.
The main task of sports medicine is the study of the ways of rising skills of athletes to increase training and so on, Contributes to this some of the ambiguity of the provisions of sports medicine as a science. On the one hand, it is associated with the state sports Committee, subordinate which are quite powerful of the Department of sports medicine institutes of physical culture and departments of sports medicine research institutes. Naturally, the state sports Committee sets for its sports physicians issues in which he is interested. Questions pathology do not apply to them, and in them the leadership of state Committee of insufficiently competent. As for the Ministry of health, although all medical and physical training service (clinics, physicians for physical culture and so on) and is subordinated to it, it works, in essence, by order of state Committee. The Ministry of health of such a large number of their problems that sports medicine among them is a very small place, moreover, that the idea that sport and diseases incompatible exists in the Ministry of health.