Hygiene

Hygiene - the branch of medicine that studies the influence of the conditions of life and work (with account of social factors on health of the person and develops activities aimed at the prevention of various, including occupational diseases and provision of optimal conditions for human existence, the preservation of health and longevity. Hygiene, including social hygiene (see), is the theoretical basis preventive direction of Soviet medicine. Hygiene widely applied along with special hygienic and other research methods used, for example, physiology, toxicology, chemistry, physics. Currently hygiene consists of several separate sections: occupational health (see), communal (public) hygiene, personal hygiene (see), school hygiene (see), radiation hygiene (see), space hygiene (see Space medicine), food hygiene, aviation hygiene, military hygiene and hygiene of railway transport and marine (ship) hygiene.
Elaboration of the main problems of hygiene in the USSR was carried out by the special scientific and research institutions. Hygiene must be distinguished from sanitation. Sanitation is a practical application of scientific designed hygiene. It is especially important to carry out a permanent medical control over observance of sanitary norms and rules in the institutions and companies dealing with hazardous (toxic and radioactive substances, sources of noise, vibration and other), capable of adversely affect working conditions and the environment (air, water, soil, vegetation, food products), as well as directly on the human body. In the system of health these are the functions of the sanitary-epidemiological service, the main institution which is SES (see Sanitary and epidemiological station).

This manual is designed in accordance with the program on hygiene for students of pharmaceutical institutes and pharmaceutical faculties of medical institutes. Contains materials that correspond to the profile of their future work. Such materials are the issues of hygiene, pharmacy, occupational health herbal plants and chemical-pharmaceutical enterprises, the basics of epidemiology and organization of anti-epidemic measures, health education.
The above mentioned information is completely absent in the existing textbooks on hygiene for the students of medical, sanitary and other faculties of medical institutes.
In this tutorial also covers some topics of General hygiene, which is essential for the students to study hygiene issues specific to them as future specialists of pharmaceutical business.

Introduction
Section I. Fundamentals of General hygiene
Chapter 1. Hygiene as a science
The subject of hygiene and its tasks
Methods of hygienic studies
Differentiation of hygiene
Sanitary supervision
Chapter 2. Hygiene in the past and present
Hygiene among ancient peoples feudal periods
The development of hygiene in Europe
Hygiene in pre-revolutionary Russia
Hygiene in the USSR
Chapter 3. Hygiene air.
The chemical composition of air and its hygienic
Air pollution by harmful chemical and mechanical admixtures
Microflora of air and fighting with her
Physical properties of air
Solar radiation and hygienic value
Air temperature
Humidity
The movement of air
The complex influence of meteorological factors on the heat balance and human health
Atmospheric pressure
Weather, climate and microclimate from a hygienic point of view. Acclimatization
Chapter 4. Water hygiene and water supply of settlements.
Physiological importance of water
Sanitary and hygienic value of water. Hygienic norms of water consumption
Population morbidity associated with water factor
Sanitary-hygienic indices of water quality
Hygienic standardization and quality control of drinking water
Sanitary-hygienic characteristics of water sources
Pollution and self-purification of water sources. Their comparative hygienic characteristics
Sanitary characteristics of various systems of water supply
Centralized water supply
Methods for water quality improvement
Decentralized water supply
Sanitary protection of water supply sources
Chapter 5. Hygiene soil and cleaning of populated areas.
Hygienic and epidemiological significance of soil
Pollution and self-purification of soil
Cleaning of populated areas
Export system of cleaning and sanitation assessment
Sewage cleaning system and its health assessment
The settlements rectification of solid waste
Chapter 6. Heating, ventilation and lighting.
Heating and sanitary requirements
Ventilation and hygiene is
Natural ventilation
Artificial ventilation
Lighting and hygiene requirements
Natural lighting
Artificial light
Section II. Hygiene pharmaceutical institutions
Chapter 7. Hygiene pharmacy
Brief description of pharmacy work
Hygienic requirements for the design, construction and equipment pharmacies
Sanitation pharmacy premises
The fight against bacterial contamination
Personal hygiene pharmacy staff and maintenance of premises pharmacy
Hygiene rural pharmacies
Hygiene pharmacies medical institutions (closed type)
Chapter 8. Health education pharmacy
Chapter 9. Hygiene drug stores
Section III. Fundamentals of industrial hygiene.
General information
Physiology of labour
The main occupational hazards and measures of struggle against them
a) Adverse weather conditions
b) Industrial poisons
C) Industrial dust
The industrial traumatism
The basic requirements for sanitary-technical improvement of industrial enterprises. Individual protective devices. Sanitary facilities
a) the Ventilation of working space
b) the Lighting of workplaces
C) Individual protective means. Sanitary facilities
Section IV. Occupational hygiene in chemical-pharmaceutical industry.
Chapter 10. Hygienic characteristics of the chemical-pharmaceutical industry
Chapter 11. Occupational hygiene in the production of synthetic chemical-pharmaceutical products
General characteristics of the technological process
The main production of spite
Toxicological characteristics of chemicals encountered in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals
Measures for improvement of labour conditions
Chapter 12. Occupational hygiene in the production of antibiotics
General characteristics of the technological process
The main harmful factors
Toxicological characteristics of the chemicals found in the manufacture of antibiotics
Measures for improvement of labour conditions
Chapter 13. Health on Galanova-pharmaceutical enterprises
Manufacture of tablets
Drazhirovanie tablets
Production of injection solutions in ampoules
Manufacture galenovyh and novogalenovyh preparations
Filling and packing of finished pharmaceutical products
Section V. the Basics of epidemiology and organization of anti-epidemic measures.
Chapter 14. Fundamentals of epidemiology
Brief information about the epidemic process
A. the Sources of infection
B. the Mechanism and ways of transmission
B. the Susceptibility of the population
Influence of natural and social factors in the epidemic process
Chapter 15. Prevention of infectious diseases
The General principles of prevention
Disinfection. Disinsection. Deratization
Sanitization of the population
Application
The instruction on sanitary regime in pharmacies
Guidance on design pharmacies
Hygiene basics health organization
Hygiene yesterday and today
Environment
The city in which we live
House and apartment
About clothing and footwear
Personal hygiene
A hardening
How to overcome physical hunger
The labour and health
The art of relaxation
Sleep
Food
About mental hygiene
For the good of man!
Literature


The suggested textbook is a first attempt to generalize and systematize the main materials on hygiene required drug companies profile. It is intended for students of pharmaceutical institutes and pharmaceutical faculties of medical institutes. Its content is consistent with the program approved by the Central methodical Cabinet of the Ministry of health of the USSR. The aim was to promote the formation of the pharmacists prevention of thinking, which must permeate their work in pharmaceutical institutions, plants manufacturing chemical-pharmaceutical preparations, medicines, etc. High sanitary culture, purchase hygiene practices and their skillful use in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, careful observance of measures of personal hygiene and other - all these elements are necessary companions pharmacists. However, pharmacists must possess sufficient hygienic knowledge to popularize them among the General population and to help by spreading this knowledge to the prevention of various infectious and other diseases.
This tutorial is selected, taking into account profile pharmacist. It covers topics such as hygiene urban, rural and hospital pharmacies, health education in pharmacies, hygiene, drug stores, health in the enterprises manufacturing synthetic chemical-pharmaceutical preparations, medicines, antibiotics. All of these issues, private hygiene precede to the extent necessary information on General hygiene and health at work, which are the basis for understanding and concretization of the special sections of the book. The last Chapter is devoted to the exposition of the foundations of General epidemiology, rightly included in the curriculum of training of pharmacists, because the information about the causes of epidemic diseases and the measures taken against them are necessary pharmacists, and medical rabotnikam other professions, to participate in the prevention work and health education. As an application in the textbook placed reference materials that will be needed by the students in their further work in pharmaceutical institutions.
The textbook written by a team of authors at the Department of General hygiene of the I Moscow order of C. I. Lenin and the red banner of Labor of medical Institute named after I. M. Sechenov (Professor R. A. Loginov, candidate of medical Sciences I. M. Novikova) together with the staff of the Department of General hygiene of the Leningrad chemical-pharmaceutical Institute (Professor D. A. Zilber), candidate of medical Sciences A. I. Olekhnovich, candidate of medical Sciences M. M. Ostrovsky, candidate of medical Sciences, Menshikov Palace of Razumovsky).
Information and tips to friends that were made during the preparation of this edition for publication, taken into consideration. All critical remarks, which improve the quality of the tutorial, we will take with much appreciation.