Disinfection - a complex of activities aimed at the destruction in the environment of pathogenic microorganisms. In a broad sense disinfection also includes the destruction of arthropods as a vector of infection (see Disinsection) and rodents - carriers and carriers of infectious diseases (see Deratization).
Disinfection is included in the complex of anti-epidemic and sanitary preventive measures.
Disinfection is divided into current, final and prevention.
Current disinfection should be performed prior to admission infectious patient, in case of leaving it at home, and infectious, anti-tuberculosis and clinics. Thus systematically disinfect patient selection, dishes, linen, and other items that were in use, patient, produce daily wet cleaning of premises with application of disinfectants. Current disinfection is accompanied by strict observance of rules of personal hygiene for patients and caregivers. The most simple and available means current disinfection are boiling, damp cleaning of premises with application of disinfectant solutions, the use of chemical disinfectants for the disinfection of secretions, soaking the sheets and so on
Organizes disinfection of the current staff of medical institutions or assistant epidemiologist sanitary station. Control and methodological guidance for the proper conduct of the current disinfection is imposed on disinfection station or disinfection departments of epidemiological stations. The direct executors current disinfection are specially trained nurses in hospitals or care of the sick people at home. Conducting current disinfection stop after hospitalization or recovery of the patient at the direction of the attending physician.
Final disinfection is performed after the removal of the patient from the hearth (in the case of hospitalization, recovery or death). The purpose of final disinfection - the complete liberation of the source of infection from pathogens. Final disinfection is particularly large epidemiological significance due to the fact that many pathogens are able for a long time to remain viable on objects of the environment. The efficiency of final disinfection is defined by the terms and fullness of her conduct after the removal of the patient from the hearth. In the cities it is conducted in the first 6 hours. after hospitalization of the patient, and in rural areas - not later than 12 hours. Final disinfection is carried disinfection station, disinfection departments of epidemiological stations and medical areas. Disinfection works in the hearth finish the paperwork.
Prophylactic disinfection is carried out with the aim to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, mostly in crowded places (in children's collectives, public catering establishments, medical institutions). The most common methods of preventive disinfection are: boiling, duly harvesting with garbage and other waste, water chlorination, etc., To prevention activities include also the struggle against insects and rodents.
All chemical disinfectants are toxic to humans and animals, so working with them, one should observe safety precautions.
Features disinfection in some infectious diseases: