Immunization (synonym immunization) - specific prevention of infectious diseases.
For active immunization to produce active immunity (see) use specially prepared drugs vaccines (see) and toxoids (see). The immune system, caused by these drugs, occurs within 2-4 weeks and lasts a long time (years). Usually to secure the active immunity is required revaccination (re-vaccination). Since the separate immunization against a number of infections is difficult typed complex (associate) preparations containing several vaccines and anatoxin. The use of live vaccines can reduce the frequency of vaccination. Active immunization spend epidemic indications (high morbidity) and in a planned manner. Routine vaccinations are, for example, against smallpox, diphtheria, tuberculosis, the entire population in childhood and adolescence; against typhoid and paratyphoid - some groups of the population; against tularemia, plague, encephalitis in natural foci infections, etc.
Contraindications for active immunization are acute infectious diseases, TB and rheumatism, diseases of the cardiovascular system (heart disease, hypertension and others), liver, kidney, stomach ulcer of a stomach and duodenal ulcers, bronchial asthma, diabetes, pregnancy in the second half, and more For vaccination against rabies virtually no contraindications.
When deliberate or suspected human infection, especially of a child, perform passive immunization (see Seroprevalencia) with the use of immune sera (diphtheria, tetanus, anti-plague against wound infections , and others) or gamma-globulin. Serum injected into the body ready antibodies, passive immunity is manifested in the body in a few hours, sometimes later. But the short duration of passive immunity (2-4 weeks) limits the possibilities of passive immunization. Re-introduction of serum can cause anaphylactic shock (see Anaphylaxis), so serum always enter fractional (Besedke): first enter 0.5 ml, and in 1.5-2 hours remaining.
The use of vaccines and serums for specific prophylaxis and treatment of some infectious diseases:
Before getting vaccinated, it is necessary to wash hands with soap and water, and when mass vaccination wash hands as frequently as you can. Vaccinations are subcutaneous, cutaneous, enteral (ingestion), intranasal and combined methods, strictly observing the rules of asepsis. Syringes and needles are sterilized by boiling; for each person take a new sterile needle and syringe for the prevention of infectious hepatitis. The syringe fill the vaccine after it cools. Liquid vaccine pre shaken to obtain a uniform Muti and dial directly from the vials. Shejku capsules before opening it necessarily wipe alcohol or burn in the fire. Burnout produce careful not to heat the case of capsules.
The skin at the site of the injection (excluding cutaneous method) disinfect iodine tincture and immediately before injection wipe alcohol or ether. After subcutaneous injections vaccination drugs injected under the lower angle of the scapula or between the collar and nipple, because these places contain loose tissue. Decontaminated, skin, take in a fold of the left hand and needle into the base of the folds in the direction from top to bottom. Rabies vaccine is injected into the subcutaneous tissue of the stomach at or slightly below the navel, a little away from the midline.
In nakojna immunization with live vaccines skin pre-wipe alcohol, and then by air. Iodine and other disinfectants kill the pathogen. The vaccine is applied to the skin eye dropper and distribute over the surface in a spot of diameter 1,5 cm, Left-hand pull the skin, and the right use of sterile scarificator through a layer of a vaccine to produce a single linear nekroliticescoe a notch, and then give the vaccine to dry for 5-10 minutes (double and cross-cuts are denied.
Serum, gamma globulins, and some vaccine is injected intramuscularly in the upper outer quadrant of the gluteal region. Before the introduction of capsules with serum are heated in a water bath to a temperature 36-37 degrees. Liquid influenza vaccine is injected into the cavity of the nose, first to one and then to another nasal hole. The tip of conventional spray bottle or dropper with a slightly upturned head inserted into the nasal hole to a depth of 0.5 cm Hold the spray gun with his left hand, right hand twice squeeze the rubber bladder. Powdered drugs give spray for powders or special spoon containing a single dose of vaccine, after releasing the nasal passages from mucus.
In the result of vaccination may be local or General reaction. Local reaction to subcutaneous inoculation can be expressed in the form swelling, redness and pain at the site of the injection; the overall reaction - malaise, weakness, headache and fever.
In rare cases, people with increased sensitivity of the body after the injection of the phenomenon can be observed shock, therefore, vaccinated within 30 minutes should remain under medical supervision. In the case of shock under the skin type adrenaline (1 : 1000), depending on age at doses of 0.3 to 1 ml In a strong common reactions prescribe bed rest.
Persons who have immunization, before vaccination should bathe and put on clean clothes. Vaccinations, accompanied by the reaction is carried out in the end of the day or better before the weekend. Before vaccinations mandatory medical examination. It is necessary to consider contraindications to vaccination, portability previously carried out vaccinations, allergies to medicines, foods , etc. on the day of vaccination baby measure the temperature. Children vaccinated against one of infection can be vaccinated against other not earlier than two months. Vaccinations against polio can be carried out simultaneously with others (against smallpox, tuberculosis, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus and others).
Information about vaccinations to children make in the history of the development of the child. Vaccinations for adults registered in a special log.