Topographic anatomy

Topographic anatomy is an applied science that studies the relative position of the authorities in various areas of the human body. Combining anatomical knowledge, it gives a clear idea about the relationship between the authorities and the links of some organs with other, neighboring and distant, and therefore, is the Foundation that allows to solve complex problems of diagnostics and treatment of various diseases.
As an independent discipline topographic anatomy was developed much later than normal, or descriptive, anatomy, as an examination of the details of the relationship of the authorities demanded, of course, a more accurate knowledge of their structure.
Originally topographic anatomy was called surgical. The emergence of works on surgical anatomy was in response to requests for practical physicians first surgeons in need of such anatomical information that would help them in their practical activity. But first compositions on the surgical anatomy, appeared in the XVIII century, differed little from works on descriptive anatomy. They did not represent anything new or original, and was more of a collections of various anatomical information with examples of practical medicine and surgery. Only in the late XVIII and early XIX centuries began to appear individual monographs, devoted to the description of topographic anatomic relations in different areas of the human body.
In the development of anatomy in Russia prominent role played scientist doctor Martyn Ilyich Shein (1712-1762), which is rightly considered the founder of Russian anatomical and medical terminology. He was the first Russian Atlas of anatomy, and the translated works on medicine used terms, rooted in our medical literature. He owns anatomical terms: blood vessels, phrenic barrier, parietal bone, primary bone, parotid gland, the mesentery, the ileum, colon, ureter, ductus deferens and many others; he also owned and such medical terms as inflammation, necrosis, fistula, fracture, swelling, wounds, ulcers, hernia.
In the early XIX century by the representatives of the Russian anatomical school were eminent scientists. In Moscow anatomy taught E. O. Mukhin, which formed the original leadership in this discipline.
In the St. Petersburg medical-surgical Academy in some teaching anatomy Professor Peter A. Zagorsky, who created the first Russian anatomical school. He wrote the first Russian manual on anatomy in two books that have stood five editions and served as the main tool for many generations of doctors.
Already in the first third of the last century Russian medical science has been enriched by a serious research in the field of topographic anatomy. It is especially significant that in Russia in those days was especially strong influence of foreigners, mostly Germans, who, as a rule, medical institutions, and often, despite their lack of talent, who held the chair in Russian universities. Under the patronage of Royal power, these foreigners are strongly opposed to the development of Russian medical science, the manifestation of a high distinctive qualities of Russian scientists, did not allow them to departments and created even in St. Petersburg his higher medical educational institution (Medical-surgical kalinkinsky Institute), which was made only for foreigners, who prepared himself to medical practice in Russia.
At the same time surgery in the West was far from true science, as was convincingly demonstrated N. I. Pirogov in his introduction to his work "Surgical anatomy of arterial trunks and fascias". He wrote: "Who, for example, of my compatriots would believe me if I tell you that in this enlightened country like Germany, you can meet famous professors that from the pulpit talking about the futility of anatomical knowledge to surgeon?"
Advanced representatives of the Russian medicine had to wage a fierce struggle with the conservative directions in medical science, but doctors managed to get out on the broad road of scientific creativity. In 1828 appeared the work of the prominent Russian surgeon and anatomist Ilya Vasilevich boyarskogo (1789-1866), received serious anatomical preparations in P. A. Zagorsk. This work, written both in Russian and Latin, called "Anatomico-surgical table, explaining production operations ligature large arteries, drawn from nature and engraved on copper, with a brief anatomical description thereof and the explanation of production operations. These tables was a great success not only in Russia but also abroad. Later, in 1852, was released in the second work of I. C. boyarskogo (Anatomico-surgical table, explaining the production operations of cutting and breaking urinary stones"); buyalskyy were famous as a specialist in surgical removal of the bladder stones.
The most important achievement I. In boyarskogo is that it works and practical activities emphasized the importance of the new - anatomical - direction in surgery, the direction, which was so brilliantly developed by N. I. Pirogov and is a characteristic feature of the Russian surgical science.

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The guide to explore each of education provide the most characteristic topographo-anatomical landmark.
The material in the manual is located so that to use them does not have to learn a whole section or Chapter. Learning or surgeon may choose what he currently required, and directly used for practical purposes.
This manual provides the Paris anatomical nomenclature (PNA). But, given the widespread terms Bizeljsko item (BNA), we present and in cases of disagreement with the terms of the Paris item. In addition, this document contains the names, not included in the official anatomical nomenclature, but taken in topographical anatomy. This applies, for example, names of certain areas of the human body. We considered it necessary to include also eponyms, because they are deeply embedded in surgical practice.
In the description of the structure of the fascia neck authors adhere to the most rational and common in the USSR schemes Century N. Shevkunenko. In this regard, the names of the cervical fascia also differ from those in the Paris item.
Most of the images of this publication adopted with some changes from the classic guides topographic and normal anatomy.

  • Subject and objectives of topographic anatomy
  • Methodology topographo-anatomical studies