The influence of drugs, alcohol, and nicotine on the fetus

The monograph deals with the modern views on the mechanism of transfer of medicinal substances through the placenta. See clinical and experimental data with a literature review of pharmacology and toxicology of the fetus.
For obstetrician-gynecologists, pharmacologists, toxicologists.


Extensive social development program envisages further expansion of activities aimed at protecting the health of pregnant women, the fetus and newborn. Special attention should be paid to the problem of the impact of drugs on the fetus.
Ecological consequences of the global distribution of xenobiotics (industrial pollution, pesticides, household chemicals, medicines) are dangerous violation of the foundations of human activity on the stage of ontogenesis. Especially high risk of increasing consumption pregnant medicines used in some cases without the guidance of a doctor.
Medicines used pregnant, have a simultaneous impact on a woman's body, and the fruit. It is possible as direct and indirect negative effects on the fetus drugs that can cause the death of the embryo in the early stages of embryogenesis, as well as birth of children with various developmental anomalies, metabolic disorders and mental disability.
For the first time about the origin of the medicinal embryopathy talking in 1961 in connection with the wide use of a pregnant several countries of Western Europe and America sedatives thalidomide. The so-called "thalidomide catastrophe", which appeared in mass occurrence of congenital developmental defects of the limbs newborns of mothers who are in the early stages of pregnancy took thalidomide, clearly showed the need for careful clinical monitoring the impact of drugs on the fetus.
Today, the problems of perinatal pharmacology considered to be among the most important problems of medicine. This is due to the fact that lately has significantly expanded the possibilities for use of medicines for prevention and treatment of various pathological conditions of the fetus and newborn. However pharmacokinetics peculiarities of the whole range of drugs create preconditions for the excess of income and accumulation of these drugs in the body of the fetus, which may adversely affect the newborn adaptation to new conditions of existence.
Unfortunately, research on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in system mother - placenta - fetus, very small; almost not studied the complicated mechanisms of interaction of drugs with the cellular structures of the embryo and fetus.
The monograph summarizes the results obtained by the authors of the study of the effects on the fetus different classes of drugs, and also presents the data of literature on this issue.
The authors hope that they carried out a thorough analysis of modern state of the problem will not only effective but also safe therapy of different pathological conditions of the fetus and newborn.
The authors are grateful to the readers for their critical comments and constructive suggestions for the content section.

Table of contents

Section I. General regularities and mechanisms of influence of drugs on the fetus
Chapter 1. Features pharmacokinetics of drugs in system mother - placenta - fetus
1.1. The pharmacokinetics of drugs in pregnant
1.2. Transplacental transfer of drugs
1.3. The pharmacokinetics of drugs in the body of the fetus
1.4. The pharmacokinetics of drugs during lactation
Chapter 2. Peculiarities of the action of drugs on the fetus
Section II. Private pharmacology and toxicology of the fetus
Chapter 3. Medicines acting on the Central nervous system
3.1. Funds for anaesthesia
3.2. Sleep AIDS
3.3. Psychotropic drugs
3.3.1. Sedatives
3.3.2. Tranquilizers
3.3.3. Neuroleptic drugs
3.3.4. Psychostimulants
3.3.5. Antidepressants
3.4. Anti-convulsants
3.5. Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs
3.6. Medicines acting on the Central neurotransmitter processes
3.7. Antiemetic
Chapter 4. Medicines acting on the peripheral nervous system
4.1. Cholinergic tools
4.2. Adrenergic tools
4.3. Antihistamines
4.4. Mestnoanesteziruyuschee tools
Chapter 5. Medicines acting on the functions of various organs and systems
5.1. Means of influencing the activity Oxytocics and uterine tone
5.2. Heart glycosides
5.3. Antiarrhythmic agent
5.4. Hypotensive and vasodilator
5.5. Anticoagulants
5.6. Diuretics
5.7. Facilities, operating on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract
Chapter 6. Drugs that affect the metabolism
6.1. Hormonal drugs
6.1.1. The pituitary hormones and synthetic substitutes
6.1.2. Drugs stimulating and inhibiting the function of the thyroid gland and their synthetic analogues
6.1.3. Parathyroid hormone glands and its synthetic analogues
6.1.4. Hormones of the adrenal cortex and their synthetic analogs
6.1.5. Drugs female sex hormones and synthetic substitutes
6.1.6. Drugs male sex hormones and synthetic substitutes
6.1.7. The hormone of the pancreas and synthetic sugar-reducing drugs
6.2. Vitamins and their synthetic analogues
Chapter 7. Antimicrobial and antiparasitic funds
7.1. Antibiotics
7.1.1. Drugs group benzylpenicillin
7.1.2. Group of antibiotics streptomycin
7.1.3. Aminoglycoside antibiotics
7.1.4. Antibiotics of tetracycline group
7.1.5. Antibiotics of group tsefalosporinov
7.1.6. Antibiotics macrolides
7.1.7. Chloramphenicol
7.1.8. Antibiotics of different groups
7.2. Sulfa drugs
7.3. Derivative nitrofurana and naphthiridine
7.4. TB drugs
7.5. Means for treatment of trichomoniasis and other protozoal infections
7.6. Antifungals
Chapter 8. Antitumor and immunotropic tools
8.1. Antineoplastic antibiotics
8.2. Anticancer drugs of plant origin
8.3. Folate antagonists
8.4. Antagonists of purines and pyrimidines
8.5. Alkylating anticancer drugs
8.6. Immunotropic tools
8.7. Clinical-experimental data on the effect of different classes of drugs on the fetus
Chapter 9. Influence of ethanol on fetus
Chapter 10. The influence of Smoking and nicotine on the fetus
List of literature