Diagnostics and treatment of allergic diseases in children

The monograph is devoted to the topical issue of Pediatrics - diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases in children. The problems of formation of allergies in childhood and complex therapy of the most common allergic diseases, bronchial asthma, hay fever, allergic taking into account their age etiological and clinical features. Great attention is paid to the treatment and prevention of food and combined forms of Allergy. The methodical approaches to the diagnosis of various forms of Allergy - food, household, epidermal, medicinal and bacterial.
For doctors-pediatricians, allergologists, students of medical institutions.

Introduction

Allergic diseases occupy one of leading places in the pathology in children. According to the who, about 15% of the child population of the planet is large or small Allergy, and the tendency to its increase. According to the forecast of the who 2000 allergic disease prevalence will come out on top. In the last decades has changed the clinical course of many allergic diseases: marked their rejuvenation, i.e. the shift beginning at an earlier age, severity currents, the increase of combined forms of Allergy and resistance to therapy (Tyurin N. A., 1978; Kaganov S. Yu. et al., 1979; Studenikin M Ya, Sokolova I. S., 1986, and others). This is due to some extent by the expansion and change in the spectrum of allergens that affect the human organism as a result of widespread use of the medicinal and vaccination drugs, violation of ecological balance, wide introduction of chemistry in everyday life, production, agriculture (ADO A. D., 1978; Jager L, 1979). Children have a special significance in the formation of allergies has poor nutrition: replacement of natural feeding milk mixtures overfeeding, introduction inadequate age opportunities of baby food products, wide use canned food (Tolpegina of the Bastion, Potemkin, A. M., 1977; Vorontsov, I. M., Mamalygina O. A., 1986; Hide D. W., Gnyer Century Meters, 1981; Bahn S. L., Heiner D. K., 1985).
The achievements of modern theoretical and clinical Allergology and immunology, introduction of diagnostic and treatment of allergens, methods specific surveys allowed to decipher the subtle mechanisms of development of allergic diseases, changed understanding of the etiology of many of them, led to the development of new methods of specific therapy of bronchial asthma and hay fever.
However, many aspects of pediatric Allergology remain insufficiently developed, namely: peculiarities of different types of Allergy, age peculiarities of the structure of sensitization and allergic diseases clinic spectrum of causes allergens such common ones like eczema, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, asthma. The early identification of causal important allergens, especially in the preclinical stage, is a pledge of successful treatment of patients and prevent the formation of their heavy and combined forms of Allergy. Discussion question remains about the prevalence of food and bacterial Allergy and their role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. It is connected to some extent with the difficulties of their diagnosis, especially in children. Widely used in allergic practice, history and skin tests do not always informative in these types of allergies, and provocative assays are used in children is rare. This is one of the reasons incomplete identification of the perpetrators of the allergen that causes the progression of the disease and reduces the effectiveness of therapeutic measures. Based on the foregoing development of optimal schemes of complex diagnostics of different types of allergies, the selection of the most informative test for each of them is an actual problem that require further action.
Improvement of methods of treatment of children with allergies paid special attention pediatricians and allergologists. However, questions of treatment of food allergies are not well understood. Method of diet is estimated ambiguously both in terms of optimal terms of elimination from the diet allergenic products, and on the question of absolute or partial exception. Discussion the question about the possibility specific giposencibilization food allergens, as previously used methods of oral, subcutaneous and rectal giposencibilization cow's milk is not always positive (Noveller A. M., 1975; Sokolova T. S. et al., 1977; Hafter that is, 1971, and others). Insufficient treatment of patients with combined forms of Allergy.
In this monograph highlights the aspects of age-related trends in the formation of allergies in children, questions of etiology, clinical picture and treatment of the most common allergic diseases : atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever, hives and Quincke's edema - in view of the identified age and individual characteristics, are considered methodical approaches to specific diagnosis of different types of Allergy - domestic, epidermal, pollen, food, medicinal and bacterial. Much attention is paid to the treatment of food and combined forms of Allergy in children.
The author is grateful to the scientific editor of the honored scientist of the TASSR, Professor T. B. Tolpegina and reviewers Professor T. S. Sokolova, Professor N. A. Tyurin, Professor C. A. Fradkin for valuable advice and remarks during the preparation to print this book.

Table of contents

Chapter 1. Pathogenetic mechanisms of formation of Allergy in children
Chapter 2. Specific diagnosis of allergies in children
2.1. The basic principles and specific methods of diagnostics of Allergy
2.2. Features specific diagnosis of various forms of Allergy
2.2.1. Specific diagnosis of household allergies
2.2.2. Specific diagnosis of epidermal allergies
2.2.3. Specific pollen Allergy diagnostics
2.2.4. Specific diagnosis of food Allergy
2.2.5. Specific diagnosis of bacterial Allergy
2.2.6. Specific diagnosis of drug Allergy
Chapter 3. Age regularities of formation of allergies in children
Chapter 4. The main principles and methods of treatment of allergic diseases in children
4.1. Specific treatment of allergic diseases
4.1.1. A method of individual diet
4.1.2. Specific immunotherapy
4.2. Non-specific therapy of allergic diseases
Chapter 5. Features etiology, clinical picture and treatment of allergic diseases in children
5.1. Atopic dermatitis
5.2. Bronchial asthma
5.3. Pollinosis
5.4. Urticaria and angioedema
                                Application
    The questionnaire for children's allergological Cabinet
            Methods allergological examination
    Skin Allergy testing
    Provocative allergic tests
    Allergological laboratory methods of examination
Laboratory tests to diagnose allergies immediate, In-dependent, type Direct basophilic test Shelly
    Indirect basophilic test Shelly
    The reaction of destruction of fat cells (RDTC)
    Radioallergosorbent test (RAST)
    The reaction of specific leukocytosis (RLL) modified by A. M. Potemkina
Laboratory tests to diagnose allergies slow, T-dependent, type Figure damage neutrophils (PPI) by C. A. Fradkin
    Response inhibition of migration of leukocytes (RTMS), micromethod A., Artemova
    Test reactions resetcodepage (Zalberg) modified by R. A. Pospelov
    The reaction of blast transformation of lymphocytes (rbtl)
Literature