Essential nutrients

Supply of all cells of the body with nutrients, without the influx of which is impossible metabolism continually disintegrating and newly synthesized protein, is a special system of the body - organs of digestion.
For the normal course of metabolism, i.e. to maintain the life, the body cells must six types of nutrients: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water, mineral salts and vitamins. On the significance of each type of nutrients and of the amounts of the most important of them in the food standards will be told further. Here we will focus on how to change these substances in the digestive system.
In those animals and plants that we eat contains all of the necessary human kinds of nutrients. However, by themselves, bread, meat, milk, butter and other products with which we are dealing, cannot be absorbed by the body cells. Moreover, if we introduce the person directly into the blood a glass of milk, it would be tantamount to the death penalty. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates food can be assimilated by cells of the body only after some training. It is that in the digestive organs complex organic substances - proteins, fats and carbohydrates are broken down into simpler, at the "building blocks"which are composed of molecules. Only these building blocks can be used in the process of metabolism in the cells of our body.
The squirrels consist from amino acids. These "bricks" and they should be split in the digestive tract.
Fats are a compound of glycerol and fatty acids. One molecule of glycerol is connected with three molecules of fatty acids. Acids of these there are several, but because in the connection with glycerin different acids are different fats. Glycerin is well known to us. As for fatty acids, used in household soap is a mixture of sodium or potassium salts of these acids. Get the soap through appropriate processing of animal fats, allowing to separate fatty acids from the glycerin. A similar process occurs in the digestive tract.
Complex carbohydrates, starch, cellulose and others - are the building blocks called monosaccharides. Typical monosaccharide is glucose grape sugar. Glucose, like several other simple sugars, is a chain of 6 atoms of carbon, which "side" join the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen, so that on average 1 atom of carbon are 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atom, i.e., how would one molecule of water, having, as we remember, the formula H2O. thus, this group of compounds and got the name of carbohydrates.
Thus, if water, mineral salts and vitamins can be used by the cells of the body in such kind in what comes to food, proteins should be split up of amino acids, fats - to glycerol and fatty acids, carbohydrates - up to monosaccharides type glucose.
This is the duty of the digestive system. Food is exposed to, on the one hand, mechanical processing (crushing, grinding, mixing etc), on the other hand - processing, chemical, i.e. actually splitting the simplest substance. Perform this function special liquid - digestive juices, the main current top which are again enzymes. Thus, and in the digestive organs basic workers is, first, the muscle cells, engaged in mechanical processing and the movement of food, and, secondly, the glands that produce digestive juices rich in enzymes.