Injection

injectionInjection (synonym injection, injection) is one of the types of parenteral injection of fluids in the body in small amounts. The injection is produced in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, spinal canal, heart. Advantages injection of medicinal substances over oral introduction: more rapid action of these substances; the batching accuracy; off the barrier function of the liver; the possibility of introducing drugs whenever the condition of the patient. The relative lack of injections is the possibility of anaphylactic shock in allergies (see Anaphylaxis). If the patient is in the minds, it should warn of the coming Apocalypse. Injection produce in certain areas of the body where there is no risk to damage the blood vessels or nerves,in the outer surfaces of the extremities, skin Chuck areas, the skin of the abdomen, upper outer quadrant of the gluteal region.


Fig. 2. Nastavenie liquid in a syringe of ampoules

Fig. 3. Remove air bubbles from the syringe
intradermal injection
Fig. 4. Intradermal injection
subcutaneous injection
Fig. 5. Subcutaneous injection
intramuscular injection
Fig. 6. Intramuscular injection

Compliance with the rules upgrades required. The injection is mostly done using disposable syringes. Medical assistant, producing injection, before taking a syringe should carefully wash hands with soap and brush and wiping them with alcohol. You cannot touch the bottom segment of the needle.
Liquid medicinal solutions nakazyvaet needle out of glass ampoules or vials (Fig. 2)complying with the rules upgrades (see) and antiseptics (see). Oily, thick medicinal substance nakazyvaet without a needle. Typing of drug solution, the syringe should keep the needle up and slowly pushing the plunger to push the air out of it and part of the solution so that it does not have air bubbles (Fig. 3). Left in the syringe even a small air bubble may cause suppuration when intradermal and subcutaneous injection and embolism in intravenous. The area of the skin, scheduled for injection, carefully wipe the cotton wool moistened with alcohol or iodine. Equipment and injection depend on its type.
With an intradermal injection of a thin needle into a thick skin acute angle very deep (Fig. 4). Correct statement of a needle after the introduction of the solution is formed small rounded elevation, reminiscent of lemon peel. Intradermal injection is used when the surface anesthesia and diagnostic purposes (Mantoux test, samples of Casoni, McClure - Aldrich).
In the subcutaneous injection needle is injected 2-3 cm in skladku skin, taken between your fingers (Fig. 5). Solution injected under the skin in the amount of 0.5 to 10 ml; medicines prepared with isotonic sodium chloride (physiological solution), are absorbed quickly, the oil - slowly.
Intramuscular injections to great depths and in certain anatomic fields: usually in the ass (Fig. 6) scope and less on the outside of the thigh. In order not to damage the blood vessels, the place for injection choose: buttock mentally divide the vertical and perpendicular to it by horizontal lines into four parts. Injection produce in the area of the outer upper quadrant. Take the syringe in his right hand first, second and third fingers. Simultaneously with the thumb and forefinger of the left hand pull the skin at the injection site. Then sharp movement of the right hand is perpendicular to the surface of the skin inject the needle into the thick muscles at a depth of 4-6 cm, pushing the plunger, enter the medicinal substance. You must strictly follow that needle went in too deep to clutch because it can ablanitsa. To prevent allergic reactions with intramuscular injection of certain drugs (bicillin and others) need to do a shot one needle (without a syringe with a solution), and to wait for some time to ensure that through a needle does not enter the blood. If in the lumen of the needle appears drop of blood, to enter the solution medicinal the substances should not be, but a shot of the same needle must be repeated elsewhere, subject to the same caveats.
Injection into the spinal canal - see Spinal tap.
Intracardiac injection produced in the middle of the fourth and fifth intercostal space at the left sternal border or under the breastbone, as at the puncture of the pericardial. Needle in the right ventricle. The needle should be long (6-10 cm) and thin. Intracardiac injection produce urgently with sudden cardiac arrest (electric shock, poison gases, narcosis). In the heart impose 0.1% solution of epinephrine (0.5 to 1 ml) or korazol (2 ml).
Cm. also Infusion.