Insulin is a hormone protein nature, produced by the cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin increases the penetration of glucose in the tissues of the body and its use them, accelerates the conversion of carbohydrates into fat acids, reduces the content of glycogen in the liver and increases its number in the muscles. The increase of sugar content in the blood (due, for example, the introduction of glucose, epinephrine, glucagon) leads to a regulatory insulin. Violation of the endocrine function of the pancreas diabetes occurs (see Diabetes mellitus), expressed in the non-regulated increased levels of blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and the emergence of sugar in the urine (glycosuria). Cm. also Hormones.
Insulin preparations (list B) for medical use are from the pancreas of cattle. Insulin activity is biologically determined and is expressed in units of (ED) or international units (I. E.).
Insulin for injection (Insulinum pro injectionibus) available in the form of aqueous crystalline insulin, acidified with hydrochloric acid (pH of 3.0-3.5). In 1 ml of solution contains 40 or 80 UNITS of insulin. The drug action of insulin starts in 30 minutes after administration and reaches a maximum 2-4 hours and lasts 6-8 hours.
Drugs used primarily to treat diabetes. Diabetes treatment involves the use of insulin on the background of an appropriate diet. Along with the treatment of diabetes medication used in declining food, the defeat parenhima liver (once appointed glucose), to eliminate vomiting pregnant, in psychiatric practice (insulin shock). The drug is administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, and in diabetic coma and intravenously.
By adding to insulin zinc, Protamine (protein) and buffer the preparation of the extended (prolonged) actions. For example, suspension of insulin Protamine (Suspensio insulini-protamini) begins to have a glucose-lowering effect in 2-4 hours, the effect reaches through 8-12 hours. and lasts 18-24 hours; suspension Protamine-zinc-insulin (Suspensio protamini-zinci-insulini) and suspension zinc-insulin crystal (Suspensio zinci-insulini crystallisati) are beginning to have effect accordingly in 3-6 and 6-8 hours, their effect reaches through 14-20 and 16-20 hour. and only lasts 24-36 and 30-36 hours.
Preparations of prolonged action is used only for the treatment of diabetes mellitus with moderate or severe form of the disease; in diabetic coma, or pre-comatose state, tendencies to the emergence of ketoacidosis preparations of prolonged action is contraindicated in these cases apply normal insulin injection. Administered drugs extended to the just under the skin, injection them less painful than injections of regular insulin (as close to neutral pH). These drugs can be entered sick less often than an insulin injection, which facilitates the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Domestic preparations of prolonged action in 1 ml containing 40 UNITS of insulin. Cm. also, Insulin therapy.