Poisoning

Poisoning (intoxication) - diseases, developing due to the impact on the organism of toxic doses of chemicals, vegetable poisons and toxins insects, bacteria, etc. Distinguish O. industrial and domestic (depending on the location and nature of their origin), accidental or suicidal (depending on their immediate causes), food (see Food poisoning), dosage, etc. depending on their origin). The clinical course there is acute and chronic poisoning. The largest number of acute poisoning observed in everyday life because of the wide distribution of potent drugs and other chemicals in the population.
Route of entry of toxic substances in the body through the mouth (oral poisoning), the respiratory tract (inhalation), the skin and mucous membranes. Poisoning possible for intramuscular and intravenous injection, the event of accidental ingestion of toxic substances in the bowel, vagina, uterus, and if done incorrectly various medical procedures (enema, a douche, etc).
There are local action of toxic substances (e.g., chemical burns to the skin and mucous membranes), and their total effect when injected these drugs in the bloodstream.
Diagnostics O. based on analysis of historical data and symptoms of poisoning, on the determination of toxic substances in the blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, expired air etc

Poisoning is a painful condition caused by the introduction into an organism of toxic substances. Poisoning may be endogenous origin - toxicosis, toxemia. The abortion syndrome, resulting from excess in the blood of some hormonal products (e.g., hyperthyroidism), as a complication of pregnancy with symptoms of intoxication (toxaemia of pregnancy). However, sometimes the toxicosis and called some diseases caused by exogenous toxins. Prototaxites - a syndrome caused by proteins usually endogenous origin and products of their decay, for example with extensive tissue destruction (with trauma, burn, inflammatory processes. Toxaemia (synonym of taxinomie) is a clinical syndrome associated with the circulation in the blood of toxic substances of different origin, particularly microbial.
Toxicity can be domestic - accidental and intentional (suicide and homicide). Separately allocate professional poisoning.
Distinguish between acute and chronic poisoning.
A poisonous substance may enter the body in a number of ways: through the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, conjunctiva, when introduced subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously, etc. Caused by poison violation may be limited only by the first direct contact with the body (local action). Absorbed in the body poison has a General action (resorptive), which often occur mainly affecting individual organs.
Recognition of poisoning is based primarily on the questioning of the victim and his relatives, close people, neighbors about the circumstances of the disease - poisoning. Historical data are sometimes too scarce. In some cases the victim (an attempted suicide) hides the fact O. Objective review of the sick must be carried out carefully in all organ systems, with the possible urgently. Important for diagnostics is the study of secretions (vomit, washing water, urine and other), and also the rests of the poison found near the victim (tablet with a label, the empty bottle with a characteristic smell, opened vials, and so on).
General principles of treatment of poisoning: 1) immediate removal of the poison from the body, 2) quick neutralization of poison and 3) treatment of symptoms. In case of the adoption of poison through the mouth must quickly at the scene stomach wash water, you can add or neutralizing adsorbing substances (the activated coal, tannin). The amount of water used for washing, must be large enough (10-15 l). If for some reason (for example, because of an unconscious patient, when lockjaw got poisoned with strychnine, when the resistance of the patient) to enter the usual probe through the mouth cannot, then introduce a children's probe through the nose. If there is no probe, you can give him to drink several glasses of warm water and then induce vomiting irritation of the tongue and throat with a finger or a spoon. In these cases, to cleanse the stomach to enter and emetic - solution of apomorphine subcutaneously.
For faster elimination of the poison from the intestine should provide the patient with a laxative (20-30 grams of sodium sulfate or of magnesium sulphate solution, usually through a tube at the end of the stomach).
To remove the poison from urine injected into the body fluids: warm tea, water inside, isotonic solution of sodium chloride (0.9 per cent) or glucose (5%) in the number of 500-1500 ml or more of parenteral or in the form of drip enemas. To increase urine output - diuretics (novoryt, urea and other). Apply and coating substances that reduce the solubility and absorption of the poison: protein water (2-3 egg whites 1/2-1 l of water), milk, whey, oat-water, etc., Give them to drink drinks.
To some poisoning can be used in more complex ways of removing the poison from the body: bloodletting (300-500 ml), exchange transfusion, peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. The most quickly he is neutralized poison at its adsorption, such as activated carbon, and by chemical neutralization, for example by a translation into insoluble connections. In some cases, you can terminate the poison introduction opposite of existing drugs such as atropine poisoning mushroom containing muscarin.
In addition causal therapy, it is necessary and symptomatic treatment, depending on the nature caused by poison phenomena. The sequence medical event is determined by the character of poisoning and the patient. Assistance should be as fast as possible. When serious Acting, and also at doubt in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment it is necessary to send the victim after providing first medical aid, in particular after washing stomach, in the hospital.