Emergency treatment of poisoning

Emergency medical care in acute poisoning provides for the immediate withdrawal of the poison from the body; urgent neutralization of poison using remedies (special drugs, reduces the toxic effects of the poison); maintenance of the vital functions of the organism.
At the scene is first necessary to establish the cause of poisoning, find out the nature of toxic substances, it is necessary to know the time of the adoption of poison, his route of exposure, the amount of venom taken, its concentration in the solution, the dosage of the drugs.
In case of inhalation poisoning in first aid should first victim of the affected environment. The medical staff must have means of protection (self - contained breathing apparatus).
In the case of a coma patient, the lack of historical data on the nature of the adopted poison and violations of the vital functions of the organism (respiratory disorders, low blood pressure and weak pulse) urgently need to resort to the implementation of the recommendations below.
Mandatory and emergency event in oral chelation is probably early washing stomach through a tube that reduces the absorption of the poison, and local degradation (destruction) of tissues in the poisoning cauterizing liquids.
We must remember that some forms of myocardial infarction (see), as well as peptic ulcer disease (see) can be similar in clinical presentation with food poisoning. If these are suspected of the disease, assigning washing stomach should take great caution. Desirable to consult a doctor.
When providing first aid, if the victim is conscious, rinse the stomach can in sitting by abundant drinking water and inducing vomiting with the condition that caused the poisoning substance is not cauterizes the mucous membranes. Avoid aspiration of stomach contents is washed in a patient in a coma should only through a tube in the prone position, preferably on the left side, after intubation of the trachea tube with Ristovski cuff, in small portions, with the active aspirating syringe Jean gastric contents. If there is no possibility to conduct intubation, valid avoid aspiration of stomach in the Trendelenburg position (elevation of the foot end of the couch) or putting the patient on his stomach so that his head is supported by the assistant, hung down over the edge of the couch.
Before washing should swab to remove mucus and vomit from the mouth, remove dentures, relax loose clothing. The probe, greased with vaseline or vegetable oil, enter the inside of the back of the throat. Funnel probe was raised to the level of the person of the patient and pour in it about 300 ml of water of room temperature. Then funnel raise by 25 - 30 cm above the patient's head, sufficient water in the stomach. When the level reaches the mouth of the crater, its lower on 25-30 cm below the level of the person of the patient and tilt. If after lowering funnel entered the amount of water back does not follow, you should change the position of the probe in the stomach or to rinse it with water using Janet's syringe. The first portion of wash water is collected for laboratory research. For washing the stomach usually use 12-15 liters of warm water (temperature 18-20 degrees) portions 300 ml
For adsorption (absorption) in the stomach poison activated carbon is used in quantity of 15 g (1 table. l a glass of water) inside in the form of gruel before and after washing. After washing the stomach to impose 100 - 150 ml of 30% solution of sodium sulfate and magnesium.
Patients with poisoning acids and alkalis before gastric lavage should subcutaneously to type 1 ml of 0.1% solution of atropine and 1 ml of 2% solution of morphine. It should be used for washing with acid poisoning solutions soda (sodium bicarbonate), and in the administration of alkali solutions of acids, because it leads to formation of gas and undesirable swelling of the stomach. The presence of blood in the contents of the stomach is not a contraindication to hold this event, however, in this case water for washing stomach should be refrigerated.
After subcutaneous or intramuscular toxic doses of medicines locally should apply cold for 6-8 hours. Also shown is the introduction injections 3 ml of 0.5% solution novokaina with 0.3 ml of 0.1% solution of adrenaline.