Professional poisoning

Professional poisoning can occur in the production environment for persons working in harmful or poisonous substances in violation of sanitary regulations.
In "the Basics of legislation of the USSR and Union republics on health care", approved by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, stated that one of the tasks of the Soviet legislation on health care is to eliminate factors that negatively influence on human health. In section III century 23, said, "the Heads of enterprises, institutions and organizations are obliged to ensure the maintenance of production facilities and jobs, in accordance with sanitary norms and rules".
Main sanitary epidemiological Department of the Ministry of health of the USSR approved maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in the air for poisonous and radioactive substances. Accurate execution of sanitary rules at work with toxic and radioactive substances excludes professional poisoning.
Professional poisoning can occur when air pollution areas of chemical, radioactive and other substances in concentrations higher than permissible. Hazardous and toxic substances can enter the body in the form of gases, vapours, mists, fumes, dust through the respiratory tract; when you hit them on the skin and mucous membranes; the ingestion of water or food. When establishing the causes of occupational poisoning pay special attention to the study of conditions of employment, the maximum permissible concentration of harmful substances in the workplace, time of work with harmful substances (per day, per month, and year), the peculiarities of effects on the body of specific toxic substances (possibility of cumulation and others), implementation of sanitary and hygienic rules, the presence of collective and individual protection means and other
Professional poisoning can be acute or chronic. Acute poisoning are generally caused by the intake of large quantities of poison, most often during accidents, damage to the equipment.
Symptoms of intoxication do not always occur immediately. Between arrival of poison in the body and the appearance of the first symptoms often include hidden (latent) period.
Chronic poisoning result from the intake of small amounts of poison over a more or less long time. These intoxication usually develop gradually, without a clear beginning.
The diagnosis of great importance is the color of the skin of the face, hands and mucous membranes, the smell of clothes and breath, the clinical picture of poisoning, analysis of allocations, swabs from the skin of hands and face for toxic substances and others (see the articles on the individual chemicals: Aniline, Antifreeze, Arsenic, Mercury, Lead and others).
Principles of treatment of occupational poisoning: 1) termination of the further receipt of the poison in the body of the victim and ensure separating it from the body; 2) rapid neutralization of toxic action of the poison (antidote therapy); 3) pathogenic or symptomatic therapy aimed at the elimination of specific pathological phenomena, caused by the action of the poison.
First aid in occupational poisoning of separate chemical substances - see articles dedicated to these substances.
Prevention. Creating continuity of the process of production, introduction of automation, sealing. Ventilation equipment both General and local in the form of exhaust hoods, etc. with subsequent periodic control on the content of harmful substances in the air of working premises.
The use of personal protective equipment: protective clothing, sunglasses, hats, shoes, gloves, detergents, mask (see), respirator (see), paste protective (see).
Rational nourishment taking into consideration features of production (vitamins, dairy products and other). Conducting lessons of physical culture and sports, outdoors or in a well ventilated room. Using weekends and vacations at health resorts indicated. Mandatory medical examinations for admission to employment and periodic, depending on the characteristics of production, but not less than once a year.

Poisoning occupational diseases caused by exposure to chemical substances in production, usually associated with violations of occupational health and safety (pneumoconiosis, chemical burns and dermatitis chemical etiology should be considered separately).
There are acute, subacute and chronic forms.
With long-term effects of poisons in low concentrations, it usually nonspecific symptoms of poisoning professional, often expressed in a variety of disorders of the nervous and endocrine systems; later joined the symptoms specific system lesions.
The risk of poisoning professional depends on the properties of chemical substances (increased toxicity, volatility, permeability through the skin, ability to accumulate in the body and others), the nature of its activities (drugs, irritant poison, carcinogen, mutagen, etc), the type of process and status protective equipment (least dangerous continuous technological processes with hermetic or well-encapsulated equipment).
The main directions of prevention of occupational poisoning: a) remove vysokorazvityh substances or their substitution by less toxic and dangerous; b) shortening of time of contact working with hazardous substances, the provision (if necessary) additional leave; C) sealing and kapsulate equipment, effective ventilation (see); d) protective clothing (see), individual protective devices [respirators (see), mask (see), etc.], protective pastes, creams, detergents and others; d) the device showers with obligatory (if necessary) by the change of underwear linen; (e) development of contraindications for use with certain harmful substances, preliminary and periodic medical examinations (the latter in order to timely diagnose early, pre-clinical forms of intoxication), treatment-and-prophylactic nutrition, drug prevention, physical education, health education and hygiene education; g) scientific justification of acts of sanitary legislation, in particular the hygienic standardization of raw materials and manufactured goods, establishment of maximum permissible concentrations of harmful substances in the air area of breathing.
The principles of first aid and treatment, see above. Cm. the industrial Poisons.